Malcolm III of Scotland

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Definition

Malcolm III of Scotland (aka Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) reigned as king from 1058 to 1093 CE. He took the throne after his young predecessor Lulach (r. 1057-1058 CE), the stepson of Macbeth, king of Scotland (r. 1040-1057 CE), was killed in an ambush. Malcolm thus restored the ruling house of Dunkeld, founded by his father Duncan I of Scotland (r. 1034-1040 CE). He had been helped in removing Macbeth and Lulach from the throne by the English king Edward the Confessor (r. 1042-1066 CE) who hoped to make Malcolm his puppet across the border. The Norman Conquest of England in 1066 CE then upturned English-Scottish relations and Malcolm married Margaret, sister of a Saxon claimant to the English throne now occupied by William the Conqueror (r. 1066-1087 CE). Repeated raids in both directions continued to sour relations, and Malcolm was killed in one such expedition in Northumbria in 1093 CE. Malcolm was succeeded by his brother, Donald III of Scotland (r. 1093-1097 CE). Remarkably, four of Malcolm's sons would rule as kings of Scotland while his daughter became the Queen of England.

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