Malcolm III of Scotland


Malcolm III of Scotland (aka Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) reigned as king from 1058 to 1093 CE. He took the throne after his young predecessor Lulach (r. 1057-1058 CE), the stepson of Macbeth, king of Scotland (r. 1040-1057 CE), was killed in an ambush. Malcolm thus restored the ruling house of Dunkeld, founded by his father Duncan I of Scotland (r. 1034-1040 CE). He had been helped in removing Macbeth and Lulach from the throne by the English king Edward the Confessor (r. 1042-1066 CE) who hoped to make Malcolm his puppet across the border. The Norman Conquest of England in 1066 CE then upturned English-Scottish relations and Malcolm married Margaret, sister of a Saxon claimant to the English throne now occupied by William the Conqueror (r. 1066-1087 CE). Repeated raids in both directions continued to sour relations, and Malcolm was killed in one such expedition in Northumbria in 1093 CE. Malcolm was succeeded by his brother, Donald III of Scotland (r. 1093-1097 CE). Remarkably, four of Malcolm's sons would rule as kings of Scotland while his daughter became the Queen of England.

More about: Malcolm III of Scotland


  • 1031
    Birth of future Malcolm III of Scotland, son of Duncan I of Scotland.
  • 1040 - 1057
    Reign of Macbeth Macfinlay, king of Scotland.
  • 1040
    Following the death of his father Duncan I of Scotland, future Malcolm III of Scotland is forced into exile in Northumbria.
  • 1054
    An English army invades Scotland.
  • 27 Jul 1054
    An English army defeats Macbeth, king of Scotland at Dunsinane.
  • 12 Aug 1057
    Macbeth, king of Scotland, is fatally wounded in a skirmish at Lumphanan against supporters of future Malcolm III of Scotland.
  • Sep 1057 - 1057
    Lulach, stepson of Macbeth Macfinlay, becomes the king of Scotland.
  • Sep 1057 - Mar 1058
    Reign of Lulach as king of Scotland.
  • 1058 - 1093
    Reign of Malcolm III of Scotland.
  • 1059
    Malcolm III of Scotland marries Ingibiorg, the widow of Thorfinn of Orkney.
  • 1061
    Malcolm III of Scotland raids Northumberland in and loots the monastery at Lindisfarne.
  • 25 Dec 1066
    William the Conqueror is crowned William I, king of England, in Westminster Abbey.
  • 1070
    Malcolm III of Scotland marries his second wife, Margaret, sister of Edgar Ætheling.
  • 1070
    Malcolm III of Scotland ravages Yorkshire.
  • 1072
    William the Conqueror launches a land and sea attack on Scotland. Malcolm III of Scotland sues for peace.
  • 1079
    Malcolm III of Scotland attacks Northumbria.
  • 1087 - 1100
    Reign of William II of England.
  • 1090 - 1091
    Malcolm III of Scotland once again attacks Northumbria.
  • 1091
    William II of England sends a fleet to attack Scotland, but it is wrecked in storms off the coast of Northumberland.
  • 1093 - 1097
    Reign of Duncan III of Scotland (interrupted in 1094 CE by his nephew Duncan II).
  • 13 Nov 1093
    Malcolm III of Scotland is killed during a raid on Northumberland.
  • 16 Nov 1093
    Queen Margaret (Saint Margaret of Scotland) dies in Edinburgh Castle.