John Balliol

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John Balliol ruled as the king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296 CE. He was supported by Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307 CE) in the competition to find the successor to the heirless Alexander III of Scotland (r. 1249-1286 CE), a process known as the Great Cause. John's reign came to a swift end in 1296 CE when Edward I decided to conquer Scotland. The Scottish king was publicly stripped of his royal title and insignia, hence his nickname of Toom Tabard ('Empty Coat'). When the Scots fought back against English oppression, they chose a new king, Robert the Bruce (r. 1306-1329 CE). John, meanwhile, was confined in the Tower of London and then exiled to France where he died on his family estate in Picardy in 1313 or 1315 CE.

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