John Balliol


John Balliol ruled as the king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296 CE. He was supported by Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307 CE) in the competition to find the successor to the heirless Alexander III of Scotland (r. 1249-1286 CE), a process known as the Great Cause. John's reign came to a swift end in 1296 CE when Edward I decided to conquer Scotland. The Scottish king was publicly stripped of his royal title and insignia, hence his nickname of Toom Tabard ('Empty Coat'). When the Scots fought back against English oppression, they chose a new king, Robert the Bruce (r. 1306-1329 CE). John, meanwhile, was confined in the Tower of London and then exiled to France where he died on his family estate in Picardy in 1313 or 1315 CE.

More about: John Balliol


  • c. 1249
    John Balliol, King of Scotland, is born.
  • Aug 1291
    A great court is arranged by Edward I of England at Berwick to decide the next king of Scotland: the Great Cause.
  • 1292 - 1296
    Reign of John Balliol, king of Scotland.
  • 17 Nov 1292
    Edward I of England selects John Balliol as the new king of Scotland.
  • 30 Nov 1292
    The coronation of John Balliol, King of Scotland. He is the last medieval king to be inaugurated with the Stone of Scone a part of the ceremony.
  • Feb 1295
    Scotland formally allies itself with France against England, the beginning of the 'Auld Alliance'.
  • 1296 - 1299
    John Balliol, King of Scotland, is imprisoned in the Tower of London by Edward I of England.
  • Apr 1296
    John Balliol, King of Scotland, renounces his fealty to Edward I of England.
  • 27 Apr 1296
    John Balliol, king of Scotland, surrenders to an English army after defeat at the Battle of Dunbar. Edward I of England removes the Stone of Scone to Westminster Abbey.
  • 8 Jul 1296
    John Balliol, King of Scotland, is publicly stripped of his crown and royal insignia.
  • 11 Sep 1297
    A Scottish army led by William Wallace defeats an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.
  • Feb 1306
    Robert the Bruce declares himself king of Scotland.