Golden Horde Timeline

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  • 1227 - 1255
    Batu Khan establishes and rules the Golden Horde.
  • 1236 - 1242
    Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.
  • 1238
    The Mongols invade Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.
  • 9 Apr 1241
    The Mongols defeat an army led by Henry the Pious, the Duke of Silesia, near Liegnitz (Legnica).
  • 10 Apr 1241 - 11 Apr 1241
    The Mongols defeat an army led by Bela IV, king of Hungary, at the Battle of Mohi.
  • 1251 - 1259
    Reign of Mongke Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1257 - 1266
    Reign of Berke over the Golden Horde.
  • 1260 - 1264
    Kublai Khan fights a civil war with his brother Ariq Boke for control of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1262
    Golden Horde forces under Nogai defeat the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Terek.
  • 1266 - 1280
    Mengu-Temur rules the Golden Horde.
  • 1271
    Golden Horde forces under Nogai invade the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1299
    Nogai, the de facto leader of the Golden Horde, dies.
  • 1313 - 1341
    Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.
  • 1327
    Uzbeg shifts Golden Horde support from the Russian city of Tver to the rising power of Moscow.
  • 1342 - 1357
    Janibeg rules the Golden Horde.
  • 1362
    Lithuanian forces defeat the Golden Horde at the Battle of Blue Waters.
  • 1380
    A Russian army defeats the Golden Horde at the Battle of Kulikovo, seen as the turning point in Mongol domination of Russia.
  • 1380 - 1395
    Tokhtamysh rules the Golden Horde during a brief revival.
  • 1382
    Tokhtamysh and the Golden Horde sack Moscow.
  • 1465 - 1481
    Reign of Ahmed, the last major ruler of the Golden Horde.
  • 1480
    The Golden Horde is definitively defeated by the Russians at the Battle of the Ugra River.