Crusader States

Definition

The Crusader States (aka the Latin East or Outremer) were created after the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE) in order to keep hold of the territorial gains made by Christian armies in the Middle East. The four small states were the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Edessa, the County of Tripoli, and the Principality of Antioch. The Westerners managed to maintain a political presence in the region until 1291 CE but were constantly hampered by dynastic rivalries, a lack of fighting men, underwhelming support from Western Europe, and the military prowess of such Muslim leaders as Zangi, Nur ad-Din (sometimes also given as Nur al-Din), and Saladin.

More about: Crusader States

Timeline

  • c. 1090 - c. 1256
    The Assassins (aka Nizari Ismailis) occupy mountain castles in Syria, Iran and elsewhere.
  • 1095 - 1102
    The First Crusade is formed to recapture Jerusalem for Christendom. It is successful in its primary aim.
  • Mar 1098
    Baldwin of Boulogne takes control of Edessa and the County of Edessa is formed, one of four Crusader-created states in the Levant.
  • 3 Jun 1098
    The First Crusaders capture Antioch after an 8-month siege.
  • 15 Jul 1099
    Jerusalem is captured during the First Crusade.
  • Sep 1099
    The Crusader state, the Kingdom of Jerusalem is created.
  • 17 May 1101
    Caesarea is captured by the Crusaders.
  • 26 May 1101
    Acre is captured by the Crusaders.
  • c. 1119
    Foundation of the military order the Knights Templar.
  • 1144
    The Knights Hospitaller acquire the castle of Krak des Chevaliers in Syria.
  • 24 Dec 1144
    The Muslim Seljuk Turks, led by Imad ad-Din Zangi, capture Edessa.
  • Sep 1146
    Joscelin II's attempt to retake Edessa fails and the city is sacked by Nur ad-Din.
  • 1147 - 1149
    The Second Crusade is launched to recapture Edessa for Christendom. It is not successful.
  • 25 Oct 1147
    At Dorylaion a force of Muslim Seljuk Turks attacks an army led by Conrad III during the Second Crusade.
  • 29 Jun 1149
    The Muslim Seljuk leader Nur al-Din captures Crusader-held Antioch.
  • Jul 1149
    A new Church of the Holy Sepulchre is completed in Jerusalem.
  • 1150
    End of the County of Edessa.
  • 1152
    Raymond II, the Count of Tripoli, is murdered by the Assassins.
  • 1186 - 1192
    Guy of Lusignan reigns as king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • 3 Jul 1187 - 4 Jul 1187
    Saladin defeats the Franks army at the Battle of Hattin.
  • 1189 - 1192
    The Third Crusade is formed with the aim of recapturing Jerusalem for Christendom. Although some cities were recaptured, Jerusalem was not one of them.
  • Aug 1189 - Jul 1191
    The siege of Acre during the Third Crusade.
  • 12 Jul 1191
    Richard I of England captures Acre during the Third Crusade.
  • 28 Apr 1192
    Conrad of Montferrat, king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, is murdered by the Assassins.
  • 1202 - 1204
    The Fourth Crusade is formed to recapture Jerusalem for Christendom. Instead, the Crusaders attack Constantinople.
  • May 1203
    A small force of Crusader knights arrives in the Middle East during the Fourth Crusade.
  • 17 Oct 1244
    An army of the Ayyubid dynasty defeats a large Latin army at the battle of La Forbie (Harbiya) in Gaza.
  • 1247
    Al-Salih, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, captures Ascalon from the Franks.
  • 8 Apr 1271
    Al-Zahir Baibars, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, captures the Knights Hospitaller castle of Krak des Chevaliers.
  • 1291
    With the fall of Acre, the Crusader States, including the Kingdom of Jerusalem, are absorbed into the Mamluk Sultanate.
  • 18 May 1291
    Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East, falls to the Mamluks.
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