Caracalla was Roman emperor from 211 to 217 CE. Born Lucius Septimius Bassianus, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he became co-ruler with his father in 198 CE and sole ruler after the death of his father in 211 CE and of his brother Geta later that same year. In his Edict of 212 CE, the Antonine Constitution, he granted Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire. This worked well as propaganda but at the same time also increased tax revenue for the state. Following his father's advice, he sought the support of the Roman army above all, sharing hardship with his soldiers on campaign. His campaigns in the western part of the Roman Empire secured the frontiers and made him popular with the army, but his campaign against Parthia in the east was less successful. He was assassinated by his praetorian prefect, Macrinus (r. 217-218 CE).

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