Abbasid Dynasty

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Definition

The Abbasids were an Arabic dynasty that initially ruled over most of the Islamic empire (save some western parts) after assuming the caliphate in 750 CE, later on, their empire fragmented, however, they retained spiritual supremacy as caliphs until 1258 CE. They assumed the caliphal title after ousting the ruling Umayyad Dynasty, hence serving as the second dynasty to serves as a Caliphate (632-1924 CE, intermittently).

More about: Abbasid Dynasty

Timeline

  • 747 - 750
    Abbasid Revolution.
  • 750
    Death of Imam Ibrahim, the leader of the Abbasid clan - he was succeeded by his brother Abu Abbas.
  • 750 - 754
    Reign of Abu Abbas As-Saffah.
  • 750
    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • 750
    Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 751
    Battle of Talas (Tang-Abbasid war; followed by amiable diplomatic relations).
  • 754 - 775
    Reign of Al-Mansur over the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 755
    Death of Abu Muslim, the mastermind of the Abbasid revolution.
  • 756
    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 756 - 788
    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.
  • 775 - 785
    Reign of al-Mahdi.
  • 785 - 786
    The reign of al-Hadi.
  • 786 - 809
    The reign of Harun al-Rashid.
  • 800 - 909
    Aghlabids given autonomy over Ifriqya and western half of Sicily.
  • 806
    Harun al-Rashid's famous invasion into Byzantine territories.
  • 809 - 813
    Reign of al-Amin.
  • 813 - 833
    Reign of al-Ma'mun.
  • 833 - 842
    Reign of al-Mu'tasim.
  • 842 - 847
    Reign of al-Wathik.
  • 847 - 861
    Reign of al-Mutawakkil.
  • 861
    Al-Mutawakkil is killed in a palace coup instigated by his Turkish bodyguards.
  • 861 - 862
    Reign of al-Muntasir.
  • 909
    Fatimids overthrow the Aghlabids in Ifriqya.
  • 909 - 1171
    Fatimids rule as an anti-Caliphate to the Abbasids.
  • 945
    Buyids take possession of Baghdad.
  • 1055
    Seljuks oust the Buyids and take control of Baghdad.
  • 1092 - 1135
    Reign of al-Mustarshid; revival of military strength begins.
  • 1135
    Al-Mustarshid is killed by the Seljuks.
  • 1136 - 1160
    Reign of al-Muktafi; revival of military strength is completed.
  • 1157
    Seljuks besiege Baghdad but are unable to penetrate it.
  • 1171
    Saladin abolishes the Fatimid Caliphate.
  • 1174 - 1193
    Reign of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
  • 1225
    Death of al-Nasir, the last able Abbasid ruler.
  • 1250 - 1517
    Mamluk Sultanate.
  • 1258
    The Mongols conquer the Abbasid Caliphate. During this campaign there is the infamous sacking of Baghdad and murder of the caliph.
  • 1260
    Battle of Ain Jalut; Mongol advance to the heartland of Islam is halted.
  • 1261 - 1517
    Abbasid "shadow caliphs" are kept in Cairo by their Mamluk overlords.
  • 1517
    Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Sultanate conquers the Mamluk Sultanate and transfers the caliphal title to his lineage.
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