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Stephenson's Rocket
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Stephenson's Rocket

The Rocket was a pioneering steam-powered locomotive invented in 1829 by the British engineer Robert Stephenson (1803-1859). For a cash prize, extensive competition trials were held to find the best locomotive in the Rainhill Trials. Rocket...
Saratoga Campaign
Article by Harrison W. Mark

Saratoga Campaign

The Saratoga Campaign (20 June to 17 October 1777) was one of the most important military campaigns of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), in which a British army under General John Burgoyne invaded the Hudson River Valley but was...
Etruscan Society
Article by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Society

The social organisation of the ancient Etruscans, a civilization which flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, can only be pieced together from a collection of rather unsatisfactory sources which, unfortunately, do...
Medieval Castle
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Medieval Castle

Medieval castles were built from the 11th century CE for rulers to demonstrate their wealth and power to the local populace, to provide a place of defence and safe retreat in the case of attack, defend strategically important sites like river...
Medieval Hygiene
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Medieval Hygiene

People in the Middle Ages have acquired something of a bad reputation when it comes to cleanliness, especially the peasantry. However, despite the general lack of running water and other modern amenities, there were common expectations of...
Toltec Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Toltec Civilization

The Toltec civilization flourished in ancient central Mexico between the 10th and mid-12th centuries. Continuing the Mesoamerican heritage left to them by earlier cultures, the Toltecs built an impressive capital at Tollan. Ultimately, they...
William Wallace
Definition by Mark Cartwright

William Wallace

Sir William Wallace (c. 1270-1305) was a Scottish knight and national hero who fought for his country's independence from England. Wallace famously led the Scots to victory against a larger English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in...
Augustine of Hippo
Definition by Rebecca Denova

Augustine of Hippo

Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis (354-430), better known as Augustine of Hippo, is extolled as the greatest of the Christian Church Fathers. More than any other writer, he developed what would become known as systematic theology, or an explanation...
Ancient Celtic Religion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Celtic Religion

The polytheistic religion of the ancient Celts in Iron Age Europe remains obscure for lack of written records, but archaeology and accounts by classical authors help us to piece together a number of the key gods, sacred sites, and cult practices...
First Dynasty of Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

First Dynasty of Egypt

The kings of the First Dynasty of Egypt (c. 3150 - c. 2890 BCE) all worked toward the same ends: increasing trade, expansion of the kingdom through military campaigns, engaging in building projects (such as monuments, tombs, and temples...
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