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Spanish Armada
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Spanish Armada

The 1588 Spanish Armada was a fleet of 132 ships assembled by King Philip II of Spain (r. 1556-1598) to invade England, his 'Enterprise of England'. The Royal Navy of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603) met the Armada in the English Channel...
Francis Drake
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE) was an English mariner, privateer and explorer who in 1588 CE helped defeat the Spanish Armada of Philip II of Spain (r. 1556-1598 CE) which attempted to invade the kingdom of Elizabeth I of England (r...
Drake-Norris Expedition
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Drake-Norris Expedition

The Drake-Norris expedition of April-July 1589 CE, otherwise known as the Don Antonio Expedition, English Armada or Portugal Expedition, was an unsuccessful attempt by a large English naval and army force to destroy the remaining ships of...
Spanish Galleon
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Spanish Galleon

The Spanish galleon (Spanish: galeón, nao, or navío) was a particularly large type of galleon used for both carrying cargo and as a warship armed with up to 60 cannons. Used from the mid-16th century until the early 19th century, Spanish...
Elizabeth I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I reigned as queen of England from 1558 to 1603. Her 44-year reign was so long and packed with momentous events that the second half of the 16th century is now known as the Elizabethan era and still regarded as a 'Golden Age' for...
The Spanish Armada vs. The Royal Navy of Elizabeth I
Video by Kelly Macquire

The Spanish Armada vs. The Royal Navy of Elizabeth I

Did you know that the Spanish Armada was defeated as much by storms as by the English navy? This video is all about King Philip II of Spain’s Enterprise of England, and his defeat at the hands of The Royal Navy of Elizabeth I of England in...
The Spanish Armada, Jul-Sep 1588
Image by Simeon Netchev

The Spanish Armada, Jul-Sep 1588

A map illustrating the route and failing fortunes of the Spanish Armada (from Spanish - Grande y Felicísima Armada, “Great and Most Fortunate Fleet”) in 1588. A crucial part of a planned invasion of England by King Philip II of Spain, the...
Spanish Treasure Fleets
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Spanish Treasure Fleets

From the 16th to 18th centuries, two treasure fleets sailed each year, one to Mexico and the other to Central America, then part of the Spanish Empire. There they collected precious eastern goods and the riches of the Americas, including...
John Hawkins
Definition by Mark Cartwright

John Hawkins

Sir John Hawkins (1532-1595 CE) was an Elizabethan mariner, merchant and naval administrator who has the inglorious (if not wholly accurate) record of being England's first slave trader. In the 1560s CE Hawkins trafficked slaves from West...
Spanish Main
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Spanish Main

The Spanish Main refers, in its widest sense, to the Spanish Empire in the Americas from Florida in the north to the northern coast of Brazil in the south, including the Caribbean. The term was initially more limited and referred only to...
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