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Francis Drake
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE) was an English mariner, privateer and explorer who in 1588 CE helped defeat the Spanish Armada of Philip II of Spain (r. 1556-1598 CE) which attempted to invade the kingdom of Elizabeth I of England (r...
Francis Drake's Circumnavigation of the Globe
Article by Mark Cartwright

Francis Drake's Circumnavigation of the Globe

The English mariner, privateer, and explorer Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE) made his circumnavigation of the world between 1577 and 1580 CE. Only the second man to achieve this feat after the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480-1521...
Drake-Norris Expedition
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Drake-Norris Expedition

The Drake-Norris expedition of April-July 1589 CE, otherwise known as the Don Antonio Expedition, English Armada or Portugal Expedition, was an unsuccessful attempt by a large English naval and army force to destroy the remaining ships of...
The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers

The sea dogs, as they were disparagingly called by the Spanish authorities, were privateers who, with the consent and sometimes financial support of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), attacked and plundered Spanish colonial settlements...
Spanish Armada
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Spanish Armada

The 1588 Spanish Armada was a fleet of 132 ships assembled by King Philip II of Spain (r. 1556-1598) to invade England, his 'Enterprise of England'. The Royal Navy of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603) met the Armada in the English Channel...
Elizabeth I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I reigned as queen of England from 1558 to 1603. Her 44-year reign was so long and packed with momentous events that the second half of the 16th century is now known as the Elizabethan era and still regarded as a 'Golden Age' for...
Francis Drake Portrait, Buckland Abbey
Image by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger

Francis Drake Portrait, Buckland Abbey

A c. 1590 CE portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger of the English mariner, privateer and explorer Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE). (Buckland Abbey, England)
John Hawkins
Definition by Mark Cartwright

John Hawkins

Sir John Hawkins (1532-1595 CE) was an Elizabethan mariner, merchant and naval administrator who has the inglorious (if not wholly accurate) record of being England's first slave trader. In the 1560s CE Hawkins trafficked slaves from West...
Thomas Cavendish
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Thomas Cavendish

Thomas Cavendish (1560-1592 CE) was an Elizabethan mariner and privateer who famously circumnavigated the globe in 1586-88 CE, only the third voyage to do so and the first to set sail with that specific intention. Returning rich from Spanish...
Sir Francis Drake by Gheeraerts
Image by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger

Sir Francis Drake by Gheeraerts

A c. 1591 CE portrait by Gheeraerts the Younger of the English mariner, privateer and explorer Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE). Drake's arms are shown in the top left corner and the globe is in reference to his circumnavigation of the...
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