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Socrates
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Socrates

Socrates of Athens (l. c. 470/469-399 BCE) is among the most famous figures in world history for his contributions to the development of ancient Greek philosophy which provided the foundation for all of Western Philosophy. He is, in fact...
Plato's Greater, Better World in The Last Days of Socrates
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Plato's Greater, Better World in The Last Days of Socrates

The Last Days of Socrates is a modern-day title for the collection of four Socratic dialogues by the Greek philosopher Plato – the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and Phaedo – telling the story of the trial, imprisonment, and death of Socrates...
Xenophon's Defense of Socrates
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Xenophon's Defense of Socrates

Xenophon's Defense of Socrates (c. 371 BCE) is a passage from the Memorabilia of Xenophon (l. 430 to c. 354 BCE) in which he addresses the teachings and actions of Socrates of Athens and denounces the charges against him as unjust and unfounded...
Plato
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Plato

Plato (l. 424/423 to 348/347 BCE) is the pre-eminent Greek philosopher, known for his Dialogues and for founding his Academy in Athens, traditionally considered the first university in the Western world. Plato was a student of Socrates and...
Plato's Euthyphro: An Overlooked Comedy
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Plato's Euthyphro: An Overlooked Comedy

Plato's Euthyphro is a Socratic dialogue on the concept of piety whose meaning and purpose continue to be debated. In reading the work only as a serious inquiry into the definition of an abstract concept, however, one is apt to miss the comical...
Aristippus of Cyrene
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aristippus of Cyrene

Aristippus of Cyrene (l. c. 435-356 BCE) was a hedonistic Greek philosopher who was one of Socrates' students and founder of the Cyrenaic School of philosophy which taught that pleasure and the pursuit of pleasure was the highest good and...
Plato: The Name and The Poet
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Plato: The Name and The Poet

Plato (l. c. 424/423 to 348/347 BCE), the Greek philosopher whose works have significantly shaped Western thought and religion, is said to have initially been a poet and playwright and, even if the primary source of this claim (the often...
The Clouds
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

The Clouds

The Clouds is a comedy written c. 423 BCE by the Greek playwright Aristophanes (c. 448 BCE – c. 385 BCE). A failure at the Dionysia competition, finishing third out of three, it was revised later in 418 BCE but never produced in the author's...
Critias
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Critias

Critias (l. c. 460-403 BCE) was an Athenian politician, poet, and playwright, one of Socrates' followers, Plato's second cousin, a leading member of the Thirty Tyrants of Athens, and leader of the oligarchy they established. He is referenced...
Xenophon
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Xenophon

Xenophon of Athens (l. 430 to c. 354 BCE) was a contemporary of Plato and a fellow student of Socrates. He is best known for his Anabasis (The March Up Country) detailing the retreat of the Ten Thousand Greek mercenaries after the defeat...
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