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John II Komnenos
Definition by Mark Cartwright

John II Komnenos

John II Komnenos “the Handsome” was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1118 CE to 1143 CE. John, almost constantly on campaign throughout his reign, would continue the military successes of his father Alexios I with significant...
John II Komnenos
Image by Myrabella

John II Komnenos

Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos (r. 1118-1143 CE). From a 12th century CE mosaic panel in the south gallery of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. The emperor is shown offering a gift to the Virgin and young Christ.
Alexios I Komnenos
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexios I Komnenos

Alexios I Komnenos (Alexius Comnenus) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1118 CE. Regarded as one of the great Byzantine rulers, Alexios defeated the Normans, the Pechenegs, and, with the help of the First Crusaders, the Seljuks...
Manuel I Komnenos
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Manuel I Komnenos

Manuel I Komnenos was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1143 to 1180 CE. Manuel continued the ambitious campaigns of his grandfather Alexios I and father John II to aggressively expand the boundaries of his empire. Manuel turned out to...
Gospel of John
Definition by Rebecca Denova

Gospel of John

In the canon of the New Testament, the fourth gospel of John is uniquely different from the other three, known as the Synoptics ("seen together"). Mark, Matthew, and Luke have parallel ministries and methods of relating the story of Jesus...
Byzantine Emperor
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Emperor

The Byzantine Emperor ruled as an absolute monarch in an institution which lasted from the 4th to 15th century CE. Aided by ministers, high-ranking nobility, and key church figures, the emperor (and sometimes empress) was commander-in-chief...
John the Baptist
Definition by Rebecca Denova

John the Baptist

John the Baptist (d. c. 30 CE) was a 1st-century CE itinerant preacher in Judea. We do not know his full name, but he is recognized by his activity. 'Baptizer' (Greek: baptizo) was translated directly into English and meant 'to immerse' or...
Byzantine Government
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Government

The government of the Byzantine Empire was headed and dominated by the emperor, but there were many other important officials who assisted in operating the finances, judiciary, military, and bureaucracy of a huge territory. Without elections...
Byzantine Empire
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire existed from 330 to 1453. It is often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium. The Byzantine capital was founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337). The Byzantine Empire varied in size over the...
Constantinople
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Constantinople

Built in the seventh century BCE, the ancient city of Byzantium proved to be a valuable city for both the Greeks and Romans. Because it lay on the European side of the Strait of Bosporus, the Emperor Constantine understood its strategic importance...
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