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Byzantine Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Emperor

The Byzantine Emperor ruled as an absolute monarch in an institution which lasted from the 4th to 15th century CE. Aided by ministers, high-ranking nobility, and key church figures, the emperor (and sometimes empress) was commander-in-chief...
Byzantine Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from 330 to 1453. With its capital founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337), the Empire varied in size over the centuries, at one time...
Byzantine Government
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Government

The government of the Byzantine Empire was headed and dominated by the emperor, but there were many other important officials who assisted in operating the finances, judiciary, military, and bureaucracy of a huge territory. Without elections...
Byzantine Coinage
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Coinage

The coinage of the Byzantine Empire continued that of its more ancient predecessors and functioned as a convenient method of payment for goods and services, especially to soldiers and officials, and as a means for people to pay their taxes...
Chinese Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Chinese Emperor

The emperors of ancient China had tremendous power and responsibility. Called the 'Son of Heaven', he (and once she) was given a divine right to rule over all people but was expected to promote their best interest and not his own. An absolute...
Women in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Women in the Byzantine Empire

Women in the Byzantine Empire (4th to 15th century CE) were, amongst the upper classes, largely expected to supervise the family home and raise children while those who had to work for a living did so in most of the industries of the period...
Byzantine-Armenian Relations
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Byzantine-Armenian Relations

The relationship between the Byzantine Empire and ancient Armenia was a constant and varied one with an equal mix of wars, occupations, treaties of friendship, mutual military aid, and cultural exchange. Regarded as a vital defence to the...
Alexios I Komnenos
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Alexios I Komnenos

Alexios I Komnenos (Alexius Comnenus) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1118 CE. Regarded as one of the great Byzantine rulers, Alexios defeated the Normans, the Pechenegs, and, with the help of the First Crusaders, the Seljuks...
Emperor Zeno
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Emperor Zeno

Zeno was Byzantine emperor from 474 until 491 CE. An ethnic Isaurian, Zeno was repeatedly criticized as an outsider during his reign, which was full of rebellions and attacks by the Ostrogoths. He is best known for his failed attempt to compromise...
Nikephoros II Phokas
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Nikephoros II Phokas

Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine emperor from 963 to 969 CE. Known as “White Death of the Saracens,” Nikephoros was a fearsome commander who conquered Crete, Cilicia, and much of Syria. While he is known as a great military...