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European Colonization of the Americas
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

European Colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas was the process by which European settlers populated the regions of North, Central, South America, and the islands of the Caribbean. It is also recognized as the direct cause for the cultures of the...
The Iberian Conquest of the Americas
Article by James Hancock

The Iberian Conquest of the Americas

European explorers began to probe the Western Hemisphere in the early 1500s, and they found to their utter amazement not only a huge landmass but also a world filled with several diverse and populous indigenous cultures. Among their most...
A Brief History of Tobacco in the Americas
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Tobacco in the Americas

The history of tobacco use in the Americas goes back over 1,000 years when natives of the region chewed or smoked the leaves of the plant now known as Nicotiana rustica (primarily in the north) and Nicotiana tabacum (mostly in the south...
The Changing Interpretation of the Spanish Conquest in the Americas
Article by Oxford University Press

The Changing Interpretation of the Spanish Conquest in the Americas

The fall in 1519 of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Mexica or Aztec Empire, as it was later called, laid the foundation for the Spanish colonial empire on the North American mainland. It was the first time that Europeans had subjugated a...
Columbian Exchange
Definition by John Horgan

Columbian Exchange

The Columbian exchange is a term coined by Alfred Crosby Jr. in 1972 that is traditionally defined as the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World of Europe and Africa and the New World of the Americas. The exchange...
Spanish Main
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Spanish Main

The Spanish Main refers, in its widest sense, to the Spanish Empire in the Americas from Florida in the north to the northern coast of Brazil in the south, including the Caribbean. The term was initially more limited and referred only to...
Medieval Climate Anomaly in the Americas
Article by Oxford University Press

Medieval Climate Anomaly in the Americas

To climatologists, the period of seven to twelve centuries ago was known as a "Climate Anomaly" or a "Warm Period" (800-1300 CE). To archaeologists, it was a time of great change, a period when cultural patterns were put into place that lasted...
Map of the Americas, 1666 CE
Image by Library of Congress

Map of the Americas, 1666 CE

"Americæ descriptio nova", a map of the Americas in 1666 CE. Made by William Trevethen, Philip Chetwind, and Lessing Julius Rosenwald (1891-1979 CE). Published by Impensis Philippi Chetwing. From the Rosenwald Collection, Library of Congress...
European conquest of the Americas
Video by Geo History

European conquest of the Americas

Let's look at a map and see a summary of the different phases of exploration, conquests and colonization of American territories by European powers, beginning from the mid-15th century CE.
Jamestown Colony of Virginia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Jamestown Colony of Virginia

The Jamestown Colony in Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in North America founded in 1607. It was the third attempt of the Virginia Company of London to establish a permanent trade center in the Americas following the failures...
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