Sarcophagus of Hapmen

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Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin
published on 18 July 2016

All surfaces bear figures of gods and funerary texts. Near the head end, one side displays a false door with eyes, allowing the spirit free movement and sight. A spell from the Book of the Dead was thought to help it "come forth by day". The central figure on the long sides (one jackal-headed and one human-headed) is Anubus, the god of mummification. The Sons of Horus at the corners had to guard Hapmen's organs. The goddess Isis mourns at the foot end, as does her sister Nephthys on the head end (not visible). Many more deities appear inside. The floor displays the sky goddess Nut, who embraced Hapmen's mummy, so he could join the everlasting sun and stars. Remarkably, the figures and texts were copied from the sarcophagus of Thutmose III, a king of enduring fame who died a thousand years earlier. Hapmen, a treasurer, lived at a time of proud historical awareness. Thutmose's tomb in Thebes has already lain open for centuries, ever since priests had reburied him and other royals in a cache. 26th Dynasty, circa 624-525 BCE. From Egypt, found in Cairo, Ibn Tulun Mosque (reused as a ritual bath); original location is unknown. (The British Museum, London).

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About the Author

Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin
Associate Professor of Neurology and lover of the Cradle of Civilization, Mesopotamia. I'm very interested in Mesopotamian history and always try to take photos of archaeological sites and artifacts in museums, both in Iraq and around the world.

Cite This Work

APA Style

Amin, O. S. M. (2016, July 18). Sarcophagus of Hapmen. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Chicago Style

Amin, Osama Shukir Muhammed. "Sarcophagus of Hapmen." World History Encyclopedia. Last modified July 18, 2016.

MLA Style

Amin, Osama Shukir Muhammed. "Sarcophagus of Hapmen." World History Encyclopedia. World History Encyclopedia, 18 Jul 2016. Web. 25 Mar 2023.