The Ideology of the Holy Roman Empire
"The Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire," wrote Voltaire, and this interpretation still dominates the popular imagination, so the Holy Roman Empire is treated as a bad joke, a pale parody of the glory of Rome...
The Coronation Ceremony of the British Monarchy
The coronation ceremony of the British monarchy as we know it today involves many elements that have been a part of the pageantry ever since the 11th century CE. Such features of the ceremony carried out in Westminster Abbey since 1066 CE...
Duke Heinrich von Breslau in the Codex Manesse
Page from the early 14th-century Codex Manesse - an illuminated book of poetry composed in Middle High German - depicting Duke Heinrich von Breslau (probably Henry IV of Silesia, also known as Henryk IV Probus in Polish) participating in...
Henry IV at Canossa
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1084-1105) submitting to Gregory VII at Canossa in 1077, study for a fresco by Federico Zuccaro, 1557-1609. British Museum, London.
Henry IV Engaged in Royal Touch
Henry IV of France (r. 1572-1610) touching 575 people in Reims during the Holy Week of 1606, due to the prevailing belief that the royal touch could cure illness.
Woodcut Portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Woodcut portrait of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1084-1105) by Christoffel Jegher, c. 1631-1633. The British Museum, London.
Joan of Arc: Martyr and a Patron Saint of France
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) was born in c. 1412 to a peasant farmer in Domremy in Medieval France, but at only 13 years old she received a vision that she should lead the French to victory over the English in the Hundred Years War. Eventually...