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Side
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Side

Side (pronounced see-day) was a city on the southern coast of Cilicia (modern-day Turkey) first settled in the 7th century BCE by immigrants from Cyme, an Aeolian municipality to the north near the kingdom of Lydia. Its name means 'pomegranate'...
Battle of Pydna
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Pydna

The Battle of Pydna in June 168 BCE was a decisive Roman victory that ended the Third Macedonian War and established Rome as the dominant power in the Mediterranean. The Roman Republic was expanding, enlarging its sphere of influence along...
Jugurtha
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jugurtha

Jugurtha (r. 118-105 BCE) was King of Numidia in North Africa and grandson of the first Numidian king Masinissa (r. c. 202-148 BCE). He was the illegitimate son of Mastanabal, Masinissa's youngest son, and was the least likely of Masinissa's...
Cilicia Campestris
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Cilicia Campestris

Cilicia Campestris was one of the six districts of the Roman province of Cilicia organized by Pompey the Great (l. c. 106-48 BCE) in 64 BCE. The name translates roughly into “Cilicia of the Plains” and corresponds to the earlier...
De Officiis
Definitionby João Dickmann

De Officiis

De Officiis is a treatise written by Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 – 43 BCE), Roman statesman and orator, in the form of a letter to his son just after the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. Strongly influenced by stoicism, De Officiis...
Utica
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Utica

Utica (also Utique), 33km north of Tunis, was the first Phoenician colony on the North African coast. The strategically important port was an ally to Carthage in the First Punic War, but the city switched sides in the Second and Third Punic...
Amazing! Hannibal's Elephants of War - Explore - BBC
Videoby BBCExplore

Amazing! Hannibal's Elephants of War - Explore - BBC

A fascinating short video from the BBC documentary Hannibal: The Man, The Myth, The Mystery charting the rise and fall of the Carthage Warrior. Historians analyse the psychological advantages to using Elephants in battle. Watch more high...
Pompey
Definitionby James Lloyd

Pompey

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military leader and politician during the fall of the Roman Republic. He was born in 106 BCE and died on 28th September 48 BCE. His father was Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo...
Berbers
Definitionby Reed Wester-Ebbinghaus

Berbers

The Berbers have occupied North Africa, specifically the Maghreb, since the beginning of recorded history and until the Islamic conquests of the 8th century CE constituted the dominant ethnic group in the Saharan region. Modern Berber speakers...
Legio IX Hispana
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Legio IX Hispana

Legio IX Hispana served with Julius Caesar in Gaul and against Pompey in the Civil Wars. Later, it fought alongside Augustus in his Cantabrian Wars and was one of the four legions Claudius took with him in his invasion of Britain in 43 CE...
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