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Sassanian Kings List & Commentary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Sassanian Kings List & Commentary

The Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the greatest expression of Persian culture in the ancient world. It was consciously modeled on the earlier Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which established Persian supremacy in the region and developed...
Persian Miniature Painting
Articleby Pegah Eidipour

Persian Miniature Painting

Persian miniature painting is a courtly and aristocratic art, with exquisite colors, balanced compositions, and meticulous attention to detail. Although its origins can be difficult to trace, many consider the Arzhang, the illustrated book...
Persian Wars
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Persian Wars

The Persian Wars refers to the conflict between Greece and Persia in the 5th century BCE which involved two invasions by the latter in 490 and 480 BCE. Several of the most famous and significant battles in history were fought during the Wars...
Twelve Ancient Persian Mythological Creatures
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Ancient Persian Mythological Creatures

The mythology of any civilization reflects its core values, greatest fears, and highest hopes and so it is with the mythology of ancient Persia. The great heroes like Karsasp, Thraetaona, and Rustum express particularly Persian values but...
Sasanian Empire
Definitionby Alonso Constenla Cervantes

Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE, also given as Sassanian, Sasanid or Sassanid) was the last pre-Islamic Persian empire, established in 224 CE by Ardeshir I, son of Papak, descendant of Sasan. The Empire lasted until 651 CE when it was overthrown...
Persian Rose-and-Nightingale Paintings
Definitionby Pegah Eidipour

Persian Rose-and-Nightingale Paintings

Rose-and-nightingale paintings and patterns (gul-u-bulbul) are a subtheme of the bird-flower (gul-u-morḡ) genre in Persian art. Bird-and-flower paintings are of Chinese origin and include pictorial elements such as flowers and plants, birds...
Ten Great Persian Poets
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Great Persian Poets

Persian literature derives from a long oral tradition of poetic storytelling. The first recorded example of this tradition is the Behistun Inscription of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE), carved on a cliff-face c. 522 BCE during the period...
Ancient Persian Mythology
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Mythology

The mythology of ancient Persia originally developed in the region known as Greater Iran (the Caucasus, Central Asia, South Asia, and West Asia). The Persians were initially part of a migratory people who referred to themselves as Aryan...
Ancient Persian Gods, Heroes, and Creatures - The Complete List
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Gods, Heroes, and Creatures - The Complete List

The term 'mythology' comes from the Greek mythos (story-of-the-people) and logos (word or speech), meaning the spoken story of a people. Every civilization of the ancient world developed a belief system, which is characterized as 'mythology'...
Parthia (Empire)
Definitionby Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthia (Empire)

The Parthians ruled from 247 BCE to 224 CE creating a vast empire that stretched from the Mediterranean in the west to India and China in the east. East of the Caspian Sea there emerged from the steppe of Central Asia a nomadic Scythian tribe...
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