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Timeline & Battles of King Philip's War
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Timeline & Battles of King Philip's War

King Philip's War (1675-1678) was the pivotal engagement between the second generation of English immigrants who had arrived in New England and the Native American tribes of the region. The English won the war, and the natives lost not only...
Religion & Superstition in Colonial America
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Religion & Superstition in Colonial America

Religion and superstition went hand in hand in Colonial America, and one’s belief in the first confirmed the validity of the second. The colonists' worldview was completely informed by religion and so everything that happened - good or bad...
First Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095-1102) was a military campaign by western European forces to recapture the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. Conceived by Pope Urban II following an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I...
Knights Templar
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Knights Templar

The Knights Templar were established c. 1119 and given papal recognition in 1129. It was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life to defend Christian holy sites and pilgrims in the Middle...
Pre-Colonial North America
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Pre-Colonial North America

Pre-Colonial North America (also known as Pre-Columbian, Prehistoric, and Precontact) is the period between the migration of the Paleo-Indians to the region between 40,000-14,000 years ago and contact between indigenous tribes and European...
Hellenic World
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Hellenic World

The Hellenic World' is a term which refers to that period of ancient Greek history between 507 BCE (the date of the first democracy in Athens) and 323 BCE (the death of Alexander the Great). This period is also referred to as the age of...
Edward the Black Prince
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Edward the Black Prince

Edward of Woodstock (1330-1376 CE), better known as the Black Prince after his distinctive armour or martial reputation, was the eldest son of Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE). Made the Prince of Wales in 1343 CE, Edward would fight...
Children's Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Children's Crusade

The so-called Children's Crusade of 1212 CE, was a popular, double religious movement led by a French youth, Stephen of Cloyes, and a German boy, Nicholas of Cologne, who gathered two armies of perhaps 20,000 children, adolescents, and adults...
Battle of Hattin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Hattin

The Battle of Hattin in July 1187 CE in present-day Israel was one of the great victories of Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE). The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Latin allies were totally defeated and, shortly...
Indian Massacre of 1622
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Indian Massacre of 1622

The Indian Massacre of 1622 was an attack on the settlements of the Virginia Colony by the tribes of the Powhatan Confederacy under their leader Opchanacanough (l. 1554-1646) and his brother Opitchapam (d. c. 1630) resulting in the deaths...