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King John
Imageby Panagiotis Constantinou

King John

Face reconstruction of King John of England (also called John Lackland, r. 1199-1216), based on his tomb effigy in Worcester Cathedral and contemporary chroniclers describing his physical appearance. During his reign, he lost the Duchy of...
King John of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

King John of England

King John of England (aka John Lackland) ruled from 1199 to 1216 CE and he has gone down in history as one of the very worst of English kings, both for his character and his failures. He lost the Angevin-Plantagenet lands in France and so...
Gospel of John
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Gospel of John

In the canon of the New Testament, the fourth gospel of John is uniquely different from the other three, known as the Synoptics ("seen together"). Mark, Matthew, and Luke have parallel ministries and methods of relating the story of Jesus...
John the Baptist
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

John the Baptist

John the Baptist (d. c. 30 CE) was a 1st-century CE itinerant preacher in Judea. We do not know his full name, but he is recognized by his activity. 'Baptizer' (Greek: baptizo) was translated directly into English and meant 'to immerse' or...
John I Tzimiskes
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

John I Tzimiskes

John I Tzimiskes was Byzantine emperor from 969 to 976 CE. Although he took the throne by murdering his predecessor Nikephoros II Phokas, John was a popular emperor. A skilled general and a competent politician, he is known for expanding...
John Balliol
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

John Balliol

John Balliol ruled as the king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296 CE. He was supported by Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307 CE) in the competition to find the successor to the heirless Alexander III of Scotland (r. 1249-1286 CE), a process known...
Interview: The First Black Archaeologist: A Life of John Wesley Gilbert by John Lee
Interviewby Kelly Macquire

Interview: The First Black Archaeologist: A Life of John Wesley Gilbert by John Lee

John Lee joins World History Encyclopedia to tell us all about his new book, The First Black Archaeologist: A Life of John Wesley Gilbert. Kelly (WHE): Thank you so much for joining me! Let us start by talking about what the book is about...
John II Komnenos
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

John II Komnenos

John II Komnenos “the Handsome” was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1118 CE to 1143 CE. John, almost constantly on campaign throughout his reign, would continue the military successes of his father Alexios I with significant...
Henry II of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Henry II of England

Henry II of England ruled from 1154 to 1189 CE. He gained the throne by negotiation with his predecessor King Stephen of England (r. 1135-1154 CE) following the civil war that had raged between that monarch and Henry's mother Empress Matilda...
Magna Carta
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Magna Carta

The Magna Carta or 'Great Charter' was an agreement imposed on King John of England (r. 1199-1216) on 15 June 1215 by rebellious barons in order to limit his power and prevent arbitrary royal acts like land confiscation and unreasonable taxes...
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