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Marcus Licinius Crassus
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Marcus Licinius Crassus

Marcus Licinius Crassus (115-53 BCE) was perhaps the richest man in Roman history and in his eventful life he experienced both great successes and severe disappointments. His vast wealth and sharp political skills brought him two consulships...
Legio X Fretensis
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Legio X Fretensis

Legio X Fretensis was a legion of the Roman army formed by either Julius Caesar or Augustus. The legion spent most of its existence in the East, primarily in Judea. It participated in Corbulo’s two Armenian campaigns as well as Vespasian...
History in Five: The Death of Julius Caesar
Video by Simon & Schuster

History in Five: The Death of Julius Caesar

Historian Barry Strauss, author of 'The Death of Caesar,' explores the political, military, and social motivations behind history's most famous murder.
Vercingetorix
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix (82-46 BCE) was a Gallic chieftain who rallied the tribes of Gaul (modern-day France) to repel the Roman invasion of Julius Caesar in 52 BCE. His name means "Victor of a Hundred Battles" and was not his birth name...
Cato the Younger
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Cato the Younger

Marcus Porcius Cato (95-46 BCE), better known as Cato the Younger or Cato of Utica, was an influential politician of the Roman Republic. As the great-grandson of Cato the Elder and a dedicated student of Stoicism, he believed in traditional...
Legio IX Hispana
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Legio IX Hispana

Legio IX Hispana served with Julius Caesar in Gaul and against Pompey in the Civil Wars. Later, it fought alongside Augustus in his Cantabrian Wars and was one of the four legions Claudius took with him in his invasion of Britain in 43 CE...
Ancient Scotland
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Scotland

Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes the islands known as the Hebrides and the Orkneys. The name derives from the Roman word "Scotti" which designated an Irish tribe who invaded the...
Legio V Alaudae
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Legio V Alaudae

Legio V Alaudae, referenced in early accounts only as the "Fifth", was one of the many legions of the Roman army that helped Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) to achieve success as a military commander in Gaul, Spain, and Africa. Later stationed...
Commius
Definition by Ludwig Heinrich Dyck

Commius

Commius was an Atrebates noble during Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars (58-50 BCE) who turned from Roman ally to indomitable foe. As king of the Atrebates, Commius ably served Caesar in Britannia and Gaul before becoming one of the main leaders...
Caesar As Dictator: His Impact on the City of Rome
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Caesar As Dictator: His Impact on the City of Rome

Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) first assumed the role of dictator in 49 BCE, however, once he had secured his election as consul for the following year, he resigned after 11 days. After defeating Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48...
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