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James I of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

James I of England

James I of England (r. 1603-1625), who was also James VI of Scotland (r. 1567-1625), was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and he unified the thrones of Scotland and England following the death of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603) who...
Hundred Years' War
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict between England and France which ran on for 116 years. The war began principally because King Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) and Philip VI of France (r...
Investiture Controversy
Definitionby Michael Griffith

Investiture Controversy

The Investiture Controversy, also referred to as the Investiture Contest or Investiture Dispute, was a conflict lasting from 1076 to 1122 between the papacy of the Catholic Church and the Salian Dynasty of German monarchs who ruled the Holy...
The Canterbury Tales
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Canterbury Tales

The Canterbury Tales (written c. 1388-1400 CE) is a medieval literary work by the poet Geoffrey Chaucer (l. c. 1343-1400 CE) comprised of 24 tales related to a number of literary genres and touching on subjects ranging from fate to God's...
Chartres Cathedral
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Chartres Cathedral

The Notre Dame Cathedral (Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption) of Chartres in northern France was built in its current Romanesque and Gothic form between 1190 and 1220 CE. A grander version of earlier cathedrals on the same site, it would...
Henry IV of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Henry IV of England

Henry IV of England ruled as king from 1399 to 1413 CE. Known as Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster before he became king, Henry clashed with his cousin Richard II of England (r. 1377-1399 CE) and was exiled in 1397 CE. Returning to England...
Rene Descartes
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Rene Descartes

Rene Descartes (1596-1650 CE) was a French mathematician, natural scientist, and philosopher, best known by the phrase 'Cogito ergo sum' ('I think therefore I am'). He published works on optics, coordinate geometry, physiology...
Matilda of Tuscany
Definitionby Michael Griffith

Matilda of Tuscany

Matilda of Canossa (c. 1046-1115), the Countess of Tuscany (r. 1055-1115) and Vice-Queen of Italy (r. 1111-1115), was the final head of the noble House of Canossa following the deaths of her father in 1052 and her elder brother in 1055. One...
Alexios I Komnenos
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Alexios I Komnenos

Alexios I Komnenos (Alexius Comnenus) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1118 CE. Regarded as one of the great Byzantine rulers, Alexios defeated the Normans, the Pechenegs, and, with the help of the First Crusaders, the Seljuks...
Henry V of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Henry V of England

Henry V of England ruled as king from 1413 to 1422 CE. Succeeding his father Henry IV of England (r. 1399-1413 CE), Prince Henry established himself as a fine military leader in battles against English and Welsh rebels in the...