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Henry V of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Henry V of England

Henry V of England ruled as king from 1413 to 1422 CE. Succeeding his father Henry IV of England (r. 1399-1413 CE), Prince Henry established himself as a fine military leader in battles against English and Welsh rebels in the first decade...
Matilda of Tuscany
Definitionby Michael Griffith

Matilda of Tuscany

Matilda of Canossa (c. 1046-1115), the Countess of Tuscany (r. 1055-1115) and Vice-Queen of Italy (r. 1111-1115), was the final head of the noble House of Canossa following the deaths of her father in 1052 and her elder brother in 1055. One...
Richard, Duke of York
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Richard, Duke of York

Richard, 3rd Duke of York (l. 1411-1460 CE) was the richest man in England and one of the nobles who sparked off the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE), a dynastic dispute that rumbled on for four decades between several English kings, queens...
Richard II of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Richard II of England

Richard II of England reigned as king from 1377 to 1399 CE. The son of the late Edward the Black Prince (1330-1376 CE), Richard would succeed his grandfather Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE), but as he was only 10 years of age, he...
Drake-Norris Expedition
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Drake-Norris Expedition

The Drake-Norris expedition of April-July 1589 CE, otherwise known as the Don Antonio Expedition, English Armada or Portugal Expedition, was an unsuccessful attempt by a large English naval and army force to destroy the remaining ships of...
James I of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

James I of Scotland

James I of Scotland ruled as king from 1406 to 1437 CE. In 1406 CE, the future king was captured by pirates and then imprisoned by Henry IV of England (r. 1399-1413 CE), a confinement that lasted for 18 years. He succeeded his father Robert...
Protagoras of Abdera: Of All Things Man Is The Measure
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Protagoras of Abdera: Of All Things Man Is The Measure

Protagoras of Abdera (l.c. 485-415 BCE) is most famous for his claim that "Of all things the measure is Man, of the things that are, that they are, and of the things that are not, that they are not" (DK 80B1) usually rendered simply...
Twelve Famous Women of the Middle Ages
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Famous Women of the Middle Ages

Women in the Middle Ages were frequently characterized as second-class citizens by the Church and the patriarchal aristocracy. Women's status was somewhat elevated in the High and Late Middle Ages when the cult of the Virgin Mary, combined...
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Causes of the Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a series of dynastic conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility of England. The 'wars' were a series of intermittent, often small-scale battles, executions, murders, and failed plots as the political...
Causes of the Hundred Years' War
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Causes of the Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict fought between England and France that started when king Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) squabbled with Philip VI of France (r. 1328-1350 CE) over feudal rights concerning...