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Villanovan Culture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Villanovan Culture

The Villanovan culture flourished during the Iron Age in central Italy from c. 1000 to c. 750 BCE. It was a precursor of the Etruscan civilization, although the two populations are actually the same and the term Villanovan should not imply...
Vulci
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Vulci

Vulci (Velch) was an Etruscan city located 12 km from the western coast of central Italy by the banks of the Fiora River. Flourishing as a trading port between the 6th and 4th century BCE, it was an important member of the Etruscan League...
Arsinoe II Philadelphus
Definitionby Branko van Oppen

Arsinoe II Philadelphus

Arsinoe II (l. c. 318/311 - c. 270/268 BCE), daughter of Ptolemy I became one of the most enduring figures of the Lagid or Ptolemaic Dynasty and left an undeniable mark in the historical evidence. She was married three times; first to Alexander...
Berenice II Euergetis
Definitionby Branko van Oppen

Berenice II Euergetis

Berenice II Euergetis (c. 267-221 BCE) was a pre-eminent Hellenistic queen, who ruled together with her husband Ptolemy III (r. 246-221 BCE), when the Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power, dominating most of the eastern Mediterranean...
Vetulonia
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Vetulonia

Vetulonia (Etruscan: Vetluna), located in the hills near the western coast of central Italy, was an important Etruscan town from the 9th to 3rd century BCE. The site has many impressive tumulus tombs which were rich in artefacts illustrating...
Ancient Egyptian Symbols
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Symbols

Religion in ancient Egypt was fully integrated into the people's daily lives. The gods were present at one's birth, throughout one's life, in the transition from earthly life to the eternal, and continued their care for the soul in the afterlife...
A Brief History of Egyptian Art
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Egyptian Art

Art is an essential aspect of any civilization. Once the basic human needs have been taken care of such as food, shelter, some form of community law, and a religious belief, cultures begin producing artwork, and often all of these developments...
Magic in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Magic in Ancient Egypt

In ancient Egypt, if a woman were having difficulty conceiving a child, she might spend an evening in a Bes Chamber (also known as an incubation chamber) located within a temple. Bes was the god of childbirth, sexuality, fertility, among...
Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt

In 1851 CE, a woman named Amelia Bloomer in the United States shocked the establishment by announcing in her publication The Lily that she had adopted the "Turkish Dress" for daily wear and, further, provided readers with instructions...
Egyptian Afterlife - The Field of Reeds
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Afterlife - The Field of Reeds

The ancient Egyptians believed that life on earth was only one part of an eternal journey which ended, not in death, but in everlasting joy. When one's body failed, the soul did not die with it but continued on toward an afterlife where one...