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Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) is the era following the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-c.1069 BCE) and preceding the Late Period (c.525-332 BCE). Egyptian history was divided into eras of 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate periods'...
Carthaginian Art
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Art

The art of the Carthaginians was an eclectic mix of influences and styles, which included Egyptian motifs, Greek fashion, Phoenician gods, and Etruscan patterns. Precious metals, ivory, glass, terracotta, and stone were transformed into highly...
Villanovan Culture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Villanovan Culture

The Villanovan culture flourished during the Iron Age in central Italy from c. 1000 to c. 750 BCE. It was a precursor of the Etruscan civilization, although the two populations are actually the same and the term Villanovan should not imply...
Arsinoe II Philadelphus
Definition by Branko van Oppen

Arsinoe II Philadelphus

Arsinoe II (l. c. 318/311 - c. 270/268 BCE), daughter of Ptolemy I became one of the most enduring figures of the Lagid or Ptolemaic Dynasty and left an undeniable mark in the historical evidence. She was married three times; first to Alexander...
Berenice II Euergetis
Definition by Branko van Oppen

Berenice II Euergetis

Berenice II Euergetis (c. 267-221 BCE) was a pre-eminent Hellenistic queen, who ruled together with her husband Ptolemy III (r. 246-221 BCE), when the Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power, dominating most of the eastern Mediterranean...
Vulci
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Vulci

Vulci (Velch) was an Etruscan city located 12 km from the western coast of central Italy by the banks of the Fiora River. Flourishing as a trading port between the 6th and 4th century BCE, it was an important member of the Etruscan League...
Vetulonia
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Vetulonia

Vetulonia (Etruscan: Vetluna), located in the hills near the western coast of central Italy, was an important Etruscan town from the 9th to 3rd century BCE. The site has many impressive tumulus tombs which were rich in artefacts illustrating...
Elephant & Griffon
Image by Branko van Oppen

Elephant & Griffon

An elephant and a griffon attack warriors with so-called Celtic shields, a common theme on Hellenistic faience ware. The image is based on a faience shard perhaps from Memphis, c. 3rd century BCE, now in the collection of the Allard Pierson...
Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt

Fashion in ancient Egypt epitomized the concept of simplicity and ease in movement and remained relatively unchanged in this regard for over 3,000 years. Clothing and footwear differed in ornamentation between the upper and lower classes...
A Brief History of Egyptian Art
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Egyptian Art

Art is an essential aspect of any civilization. Once the basic human needs have been taken care of such as food, shelter, some form of community law, and a religious belief, cultures begin producing artwork, and often all of these developments...
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