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French Wars of Religion
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) were a series of eight conflicts between Protestant and Catholic factions in France lasting 36 years and concluding with the Protestant King Henry IV of France (r. 1589-1610) converting to Catholicism...
Mary I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Mary I of England

Mary I of England reigned as queen from 1553 to 1558 CE. The eldest daughter of Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) with Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536 CE), she restored Catholicism in England while her persecution of Protestants led...
Saint Catherine Area in Egypt (UNESCO/NHK)
Video by UNESCO TV NHK Nippon Hoso Kyokai

Saint Catherine Area in Egypt (UNESCO/NHK)

The Orthodox Monastery of St Catherine stands at the foot of Mount Horeb in Egypt where, the Old Testament records, Moses received the Tablets of the Law. The mountain is known and revered by Muslims as Jebel Musa. The entire area is sacred...
Death of Admiral Coligny
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Death of Admiral Coligny

The assassination attempt on Gaspard II de Coligny, Admiral of France (l. 1519-1572) on 22 August 1572 was the spark igniting the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre beginning on 24 August and continuing in Paris for the next five days and elsewhere...
Joséphine de Beauharnais
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Joséphine de Beauharnais

Joséphine de Beauharnais (1763-1814) was a French noblewoman who was the first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821). She was therefore Empress of the French from 18 May 1804 until the annulment of her marriage on 10 January 1810, as well...
Peter the Great
Definition by Liana Miate

Peter the Great

Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) was the Tsar of Russia from 1682-1721 and Emperor of Russia from 1721-1725. During his long reign, Peter had absolute power and brought real change to Russia, including building its first navy, introducing...
Dissolution of the Monasteries
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Dissolution of the Monasteries was a policy introduced in 1536 CE by Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) to close down and confiscate the lands and wealth of all monasteries in England and Wales. The plan was designed as a lucrative...
Henry V of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry V of England

Henry V of England ruled as king from 1413 to 1422 CE. Succeeding his father Henry IV of England (r. 1399-1413 CE), Prince Henry established himself as a fine military leader in battles against English and Welsh rebels in the first decade...
Elizabeth I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I reigned as queen of England from 1558 to 1603. Her 44-year reign was so long and packed with momentous events that the second half of the 16th century is now known as the Elizabethan era and still regarded as a 'Golden Age' for...
Kremlin
Definition by Liana Miate

Kremlin

The Kremlin is a fortified complex located in the centre of Moscow, Russia, which is made up of towers, high walls, palaces, and cathedrals. Construction of the Kremlin began as early as the 12th century. As one of Russia's most famous landmarks...
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