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The Iberian Conquest of the Americas
Article by James Hancock

The Iberian Conquest of the Americas

European explorers began to probe the Western Hemisphere in the early 1500s, and they found to their utter amazement not only a huge landmass but also a world filled with several diverse and populous indigenous cultures. Among their most...
Fertile Crescent - Cradle of Civilization
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Fertile Crescent - Cradle of Civilization

The Fertile Crescent is a region stretching from northern Egypt across to the Persian Gulf and was the home to the oldest civilizations in history such as the Sumerians, earning it the common name of the 'Cradle of Civilization'. First populated...
The Debate Between Sheep and Grain
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Debate Between Sheep and Grain

The Debate Between Sheep and Grain (c. 2000 BCE) is one of the best-known Sumerian literary debates in a genre that was popular entertainment by the late 3rd millennium BCE. In this piece, personifications of grain and sheep argue which is...
The Mayan Pantheon: The Many Gods of the Maya
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Mayan Pantheon: The Many Gods of the Maya

The pantheon of the Maya is a vast collection of deities worshipped throughout the regions of Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico and southward through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Honduras. These gods informed...
Sioux Story of The Gift of Corn
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sioux Story of The Gift of Corn

Corn (maize) was central to the lives of Native Americans across North, Central, and South America. Maize was introduced to North America from Mesoamerica c. 700/900 CE and transformed the lives of the indigenous peoples. Every tribal nation...
The Song of the Hoe
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Song of the Hoe

The Song of the Hoe is a Sumerian praise poem celebrating the hoe for its many uses and linking it to the creation of the world by the great god Enlil. As the economy of Mesopotamia was almost entirely based on agriculture, it is not surprising...
British Industrial Revolution
Definition by Mark Cartwright

British Industrial Revolution

The British Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) brought innovative mechanisation and deep social change. The process saw the invention of steam-powered machines, which were used in factories in ever-growing urban centres. Agriculture remained...
Chocolate in Mesoamerica
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Chocolate in Mesoamerica

Chocolate was one of the most desired foods of Mesoamerica and was consumed by the Olmec, Maya, and Aztec civilizations, amongst others. Its consumption even spread via trade routes to other parts of the Americas including the Chaco Canyon...
Demeter
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Demeter

Demeter was one of the oldest gods in the ancient Greek pantheon. Demeter was a goddess of agriculture and guaranteed the fertility of the earth. She protected both farming and vegetation. The close connection with the earth was inherited...
Fertile Crescent
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent, often called the "Cradle of Civilization", is the region in the Middle East which curves, like a quarter-moon shape, from the Persian Gulf, through modern-day southern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and northern...
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