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Mesopotamian Science and Technology
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Science and Technology

Mesopotamian science and technology developed during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) and Early Dynastic Period (2900-1750 BCE) of the Sumerian culture of southern Mesopotamia. The foundation of future Mesopotamian advances in scientific/technological...
Sargon of Akkad
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sargon of Akkad

Sargon of Akkad (r. 2334 - 2279 BCE) was the king of the Akkadian Empire of Mesopotamia, the first multi-national empire in history, who united the disparate kingdoms of the region under a central authority. He is equally famous today as...
Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future

Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one's hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept...
Map of Mesopotamia, 2000-1600 BCE
Imageby P L Kessler

Map of Mesopotamia, 2000-1600 BCE

A general map of Mesopotamia and its neighbouring territories which roughly covers the period from 2000-1600 BCE reveals the concentration of city states in Sumer, in the south. This is where the first true city-states arose, although...
Eridu
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Eridu

Eridu (present day Abu Shahrein, Iraq) was considered the first city in the world by the ancient Sumerians and is among the most ancient of the ruins from Mesopotamia. Founded in circa 5400 BCE, Eridu was thought to have been created by the...
Literature
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Literature

Literature (from the Latin Littera meaning 'letters' and referring to an acquaintance with the written word) is the written work of a specific culture, sub-culture, religion, philosophy or the study of such written work which may appear in...
Nineveh
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Nineveh

Nineveh (modern-day Mosul, Iraq) was one of the oldest and greatest cities in antiquity. It was originally known as Ninua, a trade center, and would become one of the largest and most affluent cities in antiquity. It was regarded highly by...
Enheduanna
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Enheduanna

The Akkadian poet Enheduanna (l. 2285-2250 BCE) is the world's first author known by name and was the daughter of Sargon of Akkad (Sargon the Great, r. 2334-2279 BCE). Whether Enheduanna was, in fact, a blood relative of Sargon's or the title...
Ancient Syro-Mesopotamia ca. 1764 BCE
Imageby Attar-Aram syria, using a modified map originally made by Sémhur.

Ancient Syro-Mesopotamia ca. 1764 BCE

This map shows the political situation in Syro-Mesopotamia c. 1764 BCE. During this time, the Amorite Kings, Hammurabi of Babylon and Zimri-Lim of Mari were engaged in near-constant warfare with surrounding polities, many of whom were also...
Ashurbanipal
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ashurbanipal

Ashurbanipal (668-627 BCE, also known as Assurbanipal) was the last of the great kings of Assyria. His name means "the god Ashur is creator of an heir" and he was the son of King Esarhaddon of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. In the Hebrew...