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Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary

The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) was the first great Persian political entity in Western and Central Asia which stretched, at its peak, from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia through Egypt. It was founded by Cyrus II (the...
Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past
Article by Haleh Brooks

Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past

In the early days of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), the kings came to realise that, if they were to be able to administer the vast mass of land and the multicultural people who inhabited it, they had to create an organizational system...
Achaemenid Empire
Definition by Peter Davidson

Achaemenid Empire

East of the Zagros Mountains, a high plateau stretches off towards India. While Egypt was rising up against the Hyksos, a wave of pastoral tribes from north of the Caspian Sea was drifting down into this area and across into India. By the...
Foreign Influences & Imported Luxuries in Thrace
Article by Teodora A. Nikolova

Foreign Influences & Imported Luxuries in Thrace

Defining Thracian art is a difficult task due to the fact that what we call today Thrace was never a single unified state but, rather, a collection of many independent communities (or tribes) who formed both alliances and rivalries with each...
Women in Ancient Persia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women, hold...
The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan: Median or Achaemenid?
Article by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan: Median or Achaemenid?

O Creator of the material world, at what distance from the holy man (should the place for the dead body be)?" Ahura Mazda replied: "Three paces from the holy man". (Vend. 8. 6-7) In September 2009 CE, one of my relatives...
Ancient Persian Art and Architecture
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Art and Architecture

Persian art and architecture in the present day is associated with the nation of Iran and usually designated as beginning with the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) but has an even longer history with its origins dating back to before the...
Ancient Persian Governors
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Governors

The Achaemenid Persian Empire functioned as well as it did because of the efficient bureaucracy established by its founder Cyrus the Great (r. c. 550-530 BCE) which was administered through the satrapy system. A Persian governor of a province...
Oxus Treasure
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Oxus Treasure

The Oxus Treasure is a collection of 180 artifacts of precious metal, dated to the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), which were discovered on the north bank of the Oxus River near the town of Takht-i Sangin in Tajikstan between 1876-1880...
Ardashir I
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ardashir I

Ardashir I (l. c. 180-241 CE, r. 224-240 CE) was the founder of the Persian Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) and father of the great Sassanian king Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE). He is also known as Ardashir I Babakan, Ardeshir I, Ardashir the Unifier...
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