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Scipio Africanus the Elder
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Scipio Africanus the Elder

Scipio Africanus Major (l. 236-183 BCE) received his epithet due to his military victories in Africa which won the Second Punic War for Rome against Carthage. He is also known as Scipio the Elder. He was born Publius Cornelius Scipio in 236...
Battle of Issus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Issus

The Battle of Issus, on 5 November 333 BCE, was Alexander the Great's second battle against the Persian army and the first direct engagement with King Darius III, near the village of Issus in southern modern-day Turkey. It was a major victory...
Trebizond
Definitionby Livius

Trebizond

Trapezus (Greek: Τραπεζοῦς) or Trebizond was a Greek city on the southern shore of the Black Sea, modern Trabzon. According to the Christian author Eusebius, writing more than a millennium after...
Caligula
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Caligula

Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) was Roman emperor from 37 to 41 CE. Among the great emperors of the Roman Empire stand Augustus and Marcus Aurelius. At the other end of the spectrum is Emperor Caligula who the historian...
Claudius
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Claudius

Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54 CE. After the death of Emperor Caligula (37-41 CE) and his family at the hands of the Praetorian Guard, the future Emperor Claudius was found quivering behind a set of curtains, fearing for his own...
Bucephalus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Bucephalus

Bucephalus was Alexander the Great's horse and is considered by some to be the most famous horse in history. Alexander and Bucephalus' initial meeting was unique but demonstrated the true character of one of the greatest generals in all of...
Caracalla
Definitionby Patrick Hurley

Caracalla

Caracalla was Roman emperor from 211 to 217 CE. Born Lucius Septimius Bassianus, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he became co-ruler with his father in 198 CE and sole ruler after the death of his father in 211 CE and of his brother...
Kassite
Definitionby British Museum

Kassite

It is thought that the Kassites originated as tribal groups in the Zagros Mountains to the north-east of Babylonia. Their leaders came to power in Babylon following the collapse of the ruling dynasty of the Old Babylonian Period in 1595 BC...
Ammon (Deity)
Definitionby Livius

Ammon (Deity)

Ammon is the name of a Libyan deity and his oracle in the desert. It became famous after Alexander the Great made a detour to consult the god. The modern name is Siwa. Oracle at Siwa Ammon was a Libyan deity, whose oracle was situated...
Punt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Punt

The Land of Punt is described in ancient Egyptian texts as "the land of the gods" and a region rich in resources. In the decades after Jean-Francois Champollion first deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics in 1822, and western scholars began reading...
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