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Among the many gods of the Romans, Jupiter, the son of Saturn, was the supreme god, associated with thunder, lightning, and storms. The first citizens of what would become Rome believed they were watched over by the spirits of their ancestors, and they added a triad of gods to these spirits. These new gods included Mars, the god of war; Quirinus, the deified Romulus who watched over the people of Rome; and lastly, Jupiter, the supreme god. He was Jupiter Elicius - one who brings forth. By the rise of the Republic, Jupiter's identity as the greatest of all the gods was firmly established, but two members of the old triad were replaced with Juno (his sister and wife) and Minerva (his daughter). Jupiter's most important title was Jupiter Optimus Maximus, meaning the Best and Greatest and signifying his role as father of the gods.

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