Artaphernes (active c. 513-492 BCE, also known as Artafarna) was the satrap of Lydia under the reign of his older brother Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE), monarch of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which was founded by Cyrus II (the Great, r. c. 550-530 BCE). He is remembered for his role in the Ionian Revolt (499-494 BCE) when the Ionian Greek city-states of Asia Minor rose against Persian rule and the Battle of Sardis (498 BCE) when he defended his capital from invasion.

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