Uthman ibn Affan (l. 576/583-656 CE) was an early convert to Islam, a close friend and son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), and the third caliph (r. 644-656 CE) of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE). His charitable acts and modesty earned him prominence in the early Islamic community, and he was among the favorite and most loyal companions of Prophet Muhammad. Lacking the political strength of his predecessors, he was puppeteered by his kinsmen from the Banu Umayya clan (who later rose to the caliphal seat as the Umayyad Dynasty) throughout his tenure. This stirred resistance against his rule, which climaxed in an open rebellion and culminated in his murder in 656 CE. His death created a rift in the Islamic Empire, the effects of which can be seen even in the present time.

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