Taifas ("factions" or "camps") were small independent Muslim kingdoms and principalities that emerged after the fall of hegemonic Muslim caliphates in al-Andalus – the Muslim-controlled part of the Iberian peninsula – during the High Middle Ages. There were three taifa periods between 1031 and the mid-13th century.

More about: Taifa


  • 1031
    The Umayyad Caiphate of Cordoba fragments; the emergence of the taifa system.
  • 1085
    Alfonso VI, king of Castile and León conquers the taifa of Toledo.
  • c. 1090
    The Almoravids take control of al-Andalus.
  • 1144
    The second taifa system emerges in al-Andalus.
  • 1172 - 1212
    The Almohads dominate al-Andalus.
  • 1212
    Start of the third taifa period in al-Andalus.