Robert II of Scotland

Definition

Robert II of Scotland ruled as king from 1371 to 1390. Born Robert Stewart, he succeeded the heirless David II of Scotland (r. 1329-1371) and so founded the royal house of Stewart. Dividing Scottish estates between his many offspring, Robert redrew the political map of his kingdom and effectively replaced half of the nobility with his family and allies, a process often called the 'Stewartisation' of Scotland. Although a more capable leader in his youth than medieval historians liked to portray him, Robert's reign did witness a decline in the wealth of the Crown and the creation of bitter rivalries amongst the great baronial families which would cause no end of problems for his successor, his son Robert III of Scotland (r. 1390-1406).

More about: Robert II of Scotland

Timeline

  • 2 Mar 1316
    Robert Stewart, future Robert II of Scotland, is born.
  • 1327
    Robert Stewart, future Robert II of Scotland, inherits from his father the title of High Steward of Scotland.
  • 1329 - 1371
    Reign of David II of Scotland.
  • 19 Jul 1333
    Edward III of England wins a victory against the Scots loyal to David II of Scotland at the Battle of Halidon Hill.
  • May 1334
    David II of Scotland flees to France after Edward Balliol declares himself king for a second time.
  • 1336
    Edward Balliol is removed from the Scottish throne by Robert Stewart and barons loyal to David II of Scotland.
  • 1336
    Robert Stewart, future Robert II of Scotland, marries his mistress Elizabeth Mure.
  • Jun 1341
    David II of Scotland returns to Scotland from exile in France.
  • 1346 - 1357
    Robert Stewart, the King's Lieutenant, rules Scotland on behalf of David II of Scotland.
  • 17 Oct 1346
    An English army defeats the Scots at the Battle of Neville’s Cross near Durham and captures David II of Scotland.
  • 1355
    Robert Stewart, future Robert II of Scotland, marries his second wife, Euphemia, Countess of Moray.
  • Oct 1357 - Nov 1357
    The Treaty of Berwick between England and Scotland releases David II of Scotland from his captivity under Edward III of England.
  • 1363
    Robert Stewart launches an unsuccessful coup against David II of Scotland.
  • 1371 - 1390
    Reign of Robert II of Scotland.
  • 22 Feb 1371
    David II of Scotland dies in Edinburgh Castle.
  • 26 Mar 1371
    Robert II of Scotland is crowned at Scone Abbey.
  • 1373
    Robert II of Scotland ends direct taxation.
  • 19 Apr 1390
    Robert II of Scotland dies at Dundonald Castle.
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