Herculaneum, located on the Bay of Naples, was a Roman town which was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE. Like its neighbour Pompeii, the town was perfectly preserved by a metres-thick layer of volcanic ash which, in the case of Herculaneum, was then covered in a lava flow which turned to stone, preserving even organic remains. Multi-storeyed buildings, frescoes, papyri, and skeletal remains are just some of the excavated material which has helped archaeologists and historians piece together the daily life of a 1st-century CE Roman town. Herculaneum is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

More about: Herculaneum


  • 89 BCE
    Oscan Herculaneum becomes a Roman town.
  • 5 Feb 62 CE
    A violent earthquake damages Pompeii, Herculaneum, and other towns in Campania.
  • Aug 79 CE - Oct 79 CE
    Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash.