Gula (also known as Ninkarrak) is the Sumerian goddess of healing and patroness of doctors, healing arts, and medical practices. She is first attested to in the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) where she is referenced as a great goddess of health and well-being. She was among the most popular deities of ancient Mesopotamia.

More about: Gula


  • c. 2047 BCE - c. 1750 BCE
    Gula first attested to during the Ur III Period in Mesopotamian History.
  • 2000 BCE - 1600 BCE
    Older dog goddess Bau becomes healing goddess Gula during the Old Babylonian Period in Mesopotamia.
  • 1792 BCE - 1750 BCE
    Female deities in Mesopotamia decline in status during the reign of Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon; but not Gula.
  • 1125 BCE - 1104 BCE
    Gula invoked in curse on memorial tablet from the reign of King Nebuchadnezar I of Babylon.