The Kingdom of Commagene (163 BCE - 72 CE) was a Hellenistic political entity, heavily influenced by Armenian and ancient Persian culture and traditions, established in southwestern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) by Ptolemaeus of Commagene (r. 163-130 BCE) of the Orontid Dynasty who had formerly been satrap (governor) of the region under the Seleucid Empire (312-63 BCE). The Seleucid Empire had been in steady decline since it came into conflict with Rome in 190 BCE and, by 163 BCE, no longer had the strength to maintain its earlier cohesion. Ptolemaeus seized on the weakness, declared Commagene an independent state, and became its first king.

More about: Commagene


  • 163 BCE - 72 CE
    Duration of The Kingdom of Commagene, founded by Ptolemaeus of Commagene.
  • 163 BCE - 130 BCE
    Reign of the first king of Commagene, Ptolemaeus of Commagene.
  • 130 BCE - 109 BCE
    Reign of the second king of Commagene, Sames II.
  • 109 BCE - 70 BCE
    Reign of the third king of Commagene, Mithridates I Callinicus.
  • 70 BCE - 38 BCE
    Reign of the fourth (and greatest) king of Commagene, Antiochus I Theos, who built the mortuary complex of Nemrut Dagi on Mount Nemrut.
  • 38 BCE - 20 BCE
    Reign of the fifth king of Commagene, Mithridates II.
  • 20 BCE - 12 BCE
    Reign of the sixth king of Commagene, Mithridates III.
  • 12 BCE - 17 CE
    Reign of the seventh king of Commagene, Antiochus III Epiphanes.
  • 17 CE - 38 CE
    The Kingdom of Commagene is ruled by Rome.
  • 38 CE - 72 CE
    Reign of the eighth and last king of Commagene, Antiochus IV (also considered the greatest), who built Antiochia ad Cragum and Aytap.
  • 72 CE
    The Kingdom of Commagene absorbed by the Roman Empire into the province of Cilicia.