Abu Simbel


Abu Simbel is an ancient temple complex, originally cut into a solid rock cliff, in southern Egypt and located at the second cataract of the Nile River. The two temples which comprise the site were created during the reign of Ramesses II (c. 1279 - c. 1213 BCE) either between 1264 - 1244 BCE or 1244-1224 BCE. The discrepancy in the dates is due to differing interpretations of the life of Ramesses II by modern day scholars. It is certain, based upon the extensive artwork throughout the interior of the Great Temple, that the structures were created, at least in part, to celebrate Ramesses' victory over the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BCE. To some scholars, this indicates a probable date of 1264 BCE for the initial construction as the victory would have been fresh in the memory of the people. However, the decision to build the grand monument at that precise location, on the border with the conquered lands of Nubia, suggests to other scholars the later date of 1244 BCE in that it would have had to have been begun after the Nubian Campaigns Ramesses II undertook with his sons and was built as a symbol of Egypt's power.

More about: Abu Simbel


  • 1279 BCE - 1212 BCE
    Reign of Ramesses II (The Great) in Egypt.
  • c. 1264 BCE - c. 1244 BCE
    Probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.
  • 1258 BCE
    The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world's first peace treaty.
  • c. 1244 BCE - c. 1224 BCE
    Other probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.