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Library of Alexandria
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Library of Alexandria

The Library of Alexandria was established under the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt (323-30 BCE) and flourished under the patronage of the early kings to become the most famous library of the ancient world, attracting scholars from around the...
What happened to the Great Library at Alexandria?
Article by Brian Haughton

What happened to the Great Library at Alexandria?

Once the largest library in the ancient world, and containing works by the greatest thinkers and writers of antiquity, including Homer, Plato, Socrates and many more, the Library of Alexandria, northern Egypt, is popularly believed to have...
Library of Pergamon
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Library of Pergamon

The Library of Pergamon was established in the city of Pergamon (also Pergamum) by the Attalid King Eumenes II (r. 197-159 BCE) and became the most famous and well-respected center of learning after the Library at Alexandria, Egypt. The library...
Library of Ashurbanipal
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Library of Ashurbanipal

The Library of Ashurbanipal (7th century BCE) is the oldest known systematically organized library in the world, established in Nineveh by the Neo-Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (r. 668-627 BCE) to preserve the history and culture of Mesopotamia...
Library of Celsus
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Library of Celsus

The Library of Celsus in ancient Ephesus, located in western Turkey, was a repository of over 12,000 scrolls and one of the most impressive buildings in the Roman Empire. Constructed in the 2nd century CE, it was named after the city's former...
The Library of Hadrian, Athens
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Library of Hadrian, Athens

The Library of Hadrian (aka Hadrian's Library) in Athens was constructed circa 132-134 CE as part of Roman Emperor Hadrian's grand re-building plan for the city. The library was the largest in Athens and with its columned façade and...
Libraries in the Ancient World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Libraries in the Ancient World

Libraries were a feature of larger cities across the ancient world with famous examples being those at Alexandria, Athens, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Nineveh. Rarely ever lending libraries, they were typically designed for visiting scholars...
Alexandria, Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria is a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It was the site of the Pharos (lighthouse), one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the legendary Library of Alexandria...
The Real History of the Library of Alexandria
Video by Kelly Macquire

The Real History of the Library of Alexandria

Did you know that the Library of Alexandria didn’t fall like most people think? This video is all about the Great Library of Alexandria, how it worked, and how its fall did not, actually, set human knowledge back thousands of years. The...
Library of Hadrian, East Wall
Image by Carole Raddato

Library of Hadrian, East Wall

The Library of Hadrian in Athens showing the eastern end wall of the peristyle court. The room with the niches (now under scaffolding) would have been the library proper, where ancient scrolls were stored. c. 132-134 CE.
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