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Kingdom of Jerusalem
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a state created in 1099 CE by Crusaders and western settlers after the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). With Jerusalem as its capital, the kingdom was the most important of the four Crusader States in the Middle...
Jerusalem
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the capital of the modern nation of Israel and a major holy city for the three Western traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It sits on spurs of bedrock between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea area. To the north...
Crusader States
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Crusader States

The Crusader States (aka the Latin East or Outremer) were created after the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE) in order to keep hold of the territorial gains made by Christian armies in the Middle East. The four small states were the Kingdom of...
First Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095-1102) was a military campaign by western European forces to recapture the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. Conceived by Pope Urban II following an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I...
Third Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Third Crusade

The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of 'the Kings' Crusade'. The three leaders were...
The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099 CE

The capture of Jerusalem from Muslim control was the primary goal of the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE), a combined military campaign organised by western rulers, the Pope, and the Byzantine Empire. After a brief siege, the city was captured...
Sixth Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Sixth Crusade

The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229 CE), which for many historians was merely the delayed final chapter of the unsuccessful Fifth Crusade (1217-1221 CE), finally saw the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (r. 1220-1250 CE) arrive with his army in the...
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which the culture produced some of its greatest works of art and literature. Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom of...
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Crusades: Causes & Goals

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many...
Saladin's Conquest of Jerusalem (1187 CE)
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Saladin's Conquest of Jerusalem (1187 CE)

Jerusalem, a holy city for the adherents of all three great monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) was conquered by the armies of the First Crusade in 1099 CE. The Muslims failed to halt their advance, as they were themselves...