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Kalhu / Nimrud
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kalhu / Nimrud

Kalhu (also known as Caleh, Calah, and Nimrud, in modern-day northern Iraq) was a city in ancient Mesopotamia that became the capital of the Assyrian Empire under Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 884-859 BCE) who moved the central government there...
The Greatest Party Ever Thrown: Ashurnasirpal II’s Kalhu Festival
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Greatest Party Ever Thrown: Ashurnasirpal II’s Kalhu Festival

The kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (912-612 BCE) have long been considered some of the most ruthless monarchs in ancient history. At the same time, they were sacking cities and slaughtering those who rebelled against them or resisted conquest...
Ninurta
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ninurta

Ninurta (identified with Ningirsu, Pabilsag, and the biblical Nimrod) is the Sumerian and Akkadian hero-god of war, hunting, and the south wind. He first appears in texts in the early 3rd millennium BCE as an agricultural god and local deity...
Ashurnasirpal II
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ashurnasirpal II

Ashurnasirpal II (r. 884-859 BCE) was the third king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. His father was Tukulti-Ninurta II (r. 891-884 BCE) whose military campaigns throughout the region provided his son with a sizeable empire and the resources to...
The Banquet Stele of Ashurnasirpal II
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Banquet Stele of Ashurnasirpal II

When he came to the throne in 884 BCE, Ashurnasirpal II had to attend to revolts which broke out across the empire. He ruthlessly put down all rebellions, destroyed the rebel cities and, as a warning to others, impaled, burned, and flayed...
Ashur
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ashur

Ashur (also known as Assur) was an Assyrian city located on a plateau above the Tigris River in Mesopotamia (today known as Qalat Sherqat, northern Iraq). The city was an important center of trade, as it lay squarely on a caravan trade route...
The Nimrud Ivories: Their Discovery & History
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Nimrud Ivories: Their Discovery & History

In 1845 CE, the archaeologist Austen Henry Layard began excavations at the ruins of the city of Nimrud in the region which is northern Iraq in the present day. Layard's expedition was part of a larger movement at the time to uncover ancient...
Dur-Sharrukin
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Dur-Sharrukin

Dur-Sharrukin (modern day Khorsabad, Iraq) was a city built by Sargon II of Assyria (reigned 722-705 BCE) as his new capital. The name means “Fortress of Sargon” and the building project became the king's near obsession as soon...
Decorative Wall Tile from Kalhu
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Decorative Wall Tile from Kalhu

This tile once decorated one of the walls of the North-West palace at the ancient city of Kalhu. 9th century BCE. From Nimrud (Kalhu), Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. (Pergamon Museum, Berlin)
Ivory Plaque from Nimrud (Ancient Kalhu)
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Ivory Plaque from Nimrud (Ancient Kalhu)

This ivory plaque depicts six Assyrian worshippers in procession in six vertical rectangles. Note the details of their dresses. The men are bare-chested and wear kilts while the women wear a full dress. Both genders wear an impressive belt...