Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc (Jeanne D'Arc, l. c. 1412-1431 CE) was a medieval peasant who, claiming to receive visions from God, turned the tide of the Hundred Years' War in favor of a French victory. She was famously martyrd for standing by her claim of...
Joan of Arc
Saint-Étienne Cathedral, Meaux, France.
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross (Sainte-Croix) of Orleans in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France, was first built in the 13th century CE on the site of a series of older churches dating back to the 4th century CE. The cathedral, which...
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) was an intermittent conflict between England and France lasting 116 years. It began principally because King Edward III (r. 1327-1377) and Philip VI (r. 1328-1350) escalated a dispute over feudal rights...
Twelve Famous Women of the Middle Ages
Women in the Middle Ages were frequently characterized as second-class citizens by the Church and the patriarchal aristocracy. Women's status was somewhat elevated in the High and Late Middle Ages when the cult of the Virgin Mary, combined...
Causes of the Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict fought between England and France that started when king Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) squabbled with Philip VI of France (r. 1328-1350 CE) over feudal rights concerning...
Joan of Arc in Orleans
A 19th century CE painting by Jean-Jacques Scherrer showing Joan of Arc (1412-1431 CE), victorious after lifting the siege of Orleans during the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE). (Museum of Fine Arts, Orleans, France)
Joan of Arc, Orleans Cathedral
One of the 19th century CE stained glass windows of the Gothic Cathedral of the Holy Cross, Orléans, France (13-14th century CE). One of a series, the window shows Joan of Arc (c. 1412-1431 CE) hearing heavenly voices.
Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe
Siege tactics were a crucial part of medieval warfare, especially from the 11th century CE when castles became more widespread in Europe and sieges outnumbered pitched battles. Castles and fortified cities offered protection to both the local...
Joan of Arc Statue, Beaugency
An 1896 CE statue of Joan of Arc (l. c. 1412-1431 CE), Beaugency, Loiret, France.