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Duchy of Athens
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Duchy of Athens

The Duchy of Athens was a Latin or Frankish state in Greece that existed from 1205 to 1458 CE. It was created in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE) and would be ruled for the majority of its history by the Burgundian de la...
Thessaly and the Duchy of Neopatras
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Thessaly and the Duchy of Neopatras

Thessaly was an independent state in medieval Greece from 1267 or 1268 to 1394 CE, first as the Greek-ruled Thessaly and later as the Catalan and Latin-ruled Duchy of Neopatras. Under its sebastokrators, Thessaly was a thorn in the side of...
Despotate of the Morea
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Despotate of the Morea

The Despotate of the Morea was a semi-autonomous appanage of the later Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines retook part of the Peloponnese in Southern Greece in 1262 CE, but the Morea was only officially governed by semi-autonomous despots of...
Despotate of Epirus
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Despotate of Epirus

The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire when it disintegrated following the Fourth Crusade's capture of Constantinople in 1204 CE. It was originally the most successful of those successor states, coming...
Fourth Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) to retake Jerusalem from its current Muslim overlords. However, in a bizarre combination of cock-ups, financial constraints, and Venetian trading ambitions...
Józef Poniatowski
Definition by Harrison W. Mark

Józef Poniatowski

Prince Józef Poniatowski (1763-1813) was a Polish soldier and patriot, who served as commander-in-chief of the Polish army during the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815). A steadfast ally of French Emperor Napoleon I (r. 1804-1814; 1815), Poniatowski...
Nerio I Acciaioli
Image by Francesco Fanelli

Nerio I Acciaioli

Nerio I Acciaioli, ruler of the Duchy of Athens (r. 1388-1394 CE) who briefly conquered the Duchy of Neopatras. Illustration from Atene Attica Descritta da suoi Principii sino all’acquisto fatto dall’Armi Venete nel 1687…, Venice, Antonio...
1204: The Sack of Constantinople
Article by Mark Cartwright

1204: The Sack of Constantinople

In 1204 CE the unthinkable happened and Constantinople, after nine centuries of withstanding all comers, was brutally sacked. Even more startling was the fact that the perpetrators were not any of the traditional enemies of the Byzantine...
Coin of Guy II de la Roche
Image by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Coin of Guy II de la Roche

Silver denier of Guy II de la Roche (r. 1287-1308 CE), Duke of Athens. Minted in Thebes, Duchy of Athens.
Athens
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Athens

Athens, Greece, with its famous Acropolis, has come to symbolize the whole of the country in the popular imagination, and not without cause. It not only has its iconic ruins and the famous port of Piraeus but, thanks to ancient writers, its...
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