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Alexander I of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexander I of Scotland

Alexander I of Scotland reigned from 1107 to 1124 CE. Alexander continued the reorganisation of the Scottish Church, taking the Roman Catholic Church organisation as a model, and he famously founded the priory at Scone, site of the acclamation...
Alexander III of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexander III of Scotland

Alexander III of Scotland reigned from 1249 to 1286 CE. Succeeding his father Alexander II of Scotland (r. 1214-1249 CE) at the age of eight, the young king's early reign was blighted by rivalries between his nobles, a situation made more...
Alexander II of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexander II of Scotland

Alexander II of Scotland reigned from 1214 to 1249 CE. Succeeding his father William I of Scotland (r. 1165-1214 CE), Alexander supported the northern barons in England against the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) and so contributed...
Malcolm III of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Malcolm III of Scotland

Malcolm III of Scotland (aka Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) reigned as king from 1058 to 1093 CE. He took the throne after his young predecessor Lulach (r. 1057-1058 CE), the stepson of Macbeth, king of Scotland (r. 1040-1057 CE), was...
David I of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

David I of Scotland

David I of Scotland reigned from 1124 to 1153 CE. Taking over from his elder brother Alexander I of Scotland (r. 1107-1124 CE), David continued to consolidate the kingdom of Scotland as a single nation, built castles and monasteries, and...
Saint Margaret of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Saint Margaret of Scotland

Saint Margaret of Scotland (c. 1046-1093 CE) was, as the second wife of Malcolm III (r. 1058-1093 CE), the queen of Scotland from 1070 CE until her death in November 1093 CE. A princess of the royal house of Wessex, she brought Anglo-Saxon...
William I of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

William I of Scotland

William I of Scotland, also known as 'William the Lion' after his heraldic emblem, reigned from 1165 to 1214 CE. Succeeding his elder brother Malcolm IV of Scotland (r. 1153-1165 CE), William was faced with a shrinking kingdom, but he harboured...
Macbeth, King of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Macbeth, King of Scotland

Macbeth Macfinlay (aka Mac Bethad mac Findláig) reigned as the king of Scotland from 1040 to 1057 CE. The ruler of Moray, he took the throne via the battlefield from his predecessor Duncan I of Scotland (r. 1034-1040 CE). Macbeth reigned...
Robert II of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Robert II of Scotland

Robert II of Scotland ruled as king from 1371 to 1390. Born Robert Stewart, he succeeded the heirless David II of Scotland (r. 1329-1371) and so founded the royal house of Stewart. Dividing Scottish estates between his many offspring, Robert...
Alexander the Great
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great (l. 21 July 356 BCE – 10 or 11 June 323 BCE, r. 336-323 BCE), was the son of King Philip II of Macedon (r. 359-336 BCE) who became king upon his father's death in 336 BCE and then...
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