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Black Death
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Black Death

The Black Death was a plague pandemic which devastated medieval Europe from 1347 to 1352 CE, killing an estimated 25-30 million people. The disease originated in central Asia and was taken to the Crimea by Mongol warriors and traders. The...
Effects of the Black Death on Europe
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Effects of the Black Death on Europe

The outbreak of plague in Europe between 1347-1352 CE – known as the Black Death – completely changed the world of medieval Europe. Severe depopulation upset the socio-economic feudal system of the time but the experience of the...
Religious Responses to the Black Death
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Religious Responses to the Black Death

The Black Death of 1347-1352 CE is the most infamous plague outbreak of the medieval world, unprecedented and unequaled until the 1918-1919 CE flu pandemic in the modern age. The cause of the plague was unknown and, in accordance with the...
Boccaccio on the Black Death: Text & Commentary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Boccaccio on the Black Death: Text & Commentary

The Black Death is the name given to the plague outbreak in Europe between 1347-1352 CE. The term was only coined after 1800 CE in reference to the black buboes (growths) which erupted in the groin, armpit, and around the ears of those infected...
Medieval Cures for the Black Death
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Medieval Cures for the Black Death

The Black Death is the 19th-century CE term for the plague epidemic that ravaged Europe between 1347-1352 CE, killing an estimated 30 million people there and many more worldwide as it reached pandemic proportions. The name comes from the...
Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife
Articleby M. Choksi

Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife

Unlike the rich corpus of ancient Egyptian funerary texts, no such “guidebooks” from Mesopotamia detail the afterlife and the soul's fate after death. Instead, ancient Mesopotamian views of the afterlife must be pieced together...
Reactions to Plague in the Ancient & Medieval World
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Reactions to Plague in the Ancient & Medieval World

Throughout history, epidemics and pandemics of plague and other diseases have caused widespread panic and social disorder even, in some instances, when the people of one region were aware of a pervasive infection elsewhere. In the case of...
Plagues of the Near East 562-1486 CE
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Plagues of the Near East 562-1486 CE

Disease has been a part of the human condition since the beginning of recorded history – and no doubt earlier – decimating populations and causing widespread social upheaval. Among the worst infections recorded is the plague which...
Plague in the Ancient & Medieval World
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Plague in the Ancient & Medieval World

The word 'plague', in defining a lethal epidemic, was coined by the physician Galen (l. 130-210 CE) who lived through the Antonine Plague (165 - c. 180/190 CE) but the disease was recorded long before in relating the affliction of the Plague...
Death in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Death in Ancient Egypt

To the ancient Egyptians, death was not the end of life but only the beginning of the next phase in an individual's eternal journey. There was no word in ancient Egyptian which corresponds to the concept of "death" as usually defined, as...