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Clothing in the Mongol Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Clothing in the Mongol Empire

The clothing worn by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th century CE, like most other aspects of their culture, reflected their nomadic lifestyle in the often harsh climate of the Asian steppe. Typical items included felt hats, long jackets with...
The Roman Hoxne Hoard
Articleby Brian Haughton

The Roman Hoxne Hoard

The Hoxne Hoard is the largest cache of late Roman gold found anywhere in the Roman Empire. Discovered by a metal detectorist in Suffolk, in the east of England in 1992 CE, the incredible collection contains 14,865 late-4th and early-5th...
Ninja
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ninja

Ninja (aka Shinobi) were the specialised assassins, saboteurs, and secret agents of medieval Japanese warfare who were highly-trained proponents of the martial arts, especially what later became known as ninjutsu or 'the art of the ninja'...
Ancient Egyptian Art
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Art

The artworks of ancient Egypt have fascinated people for thousands of years. The early Greek and later Roman artists were influenced by Egyptian techniques and their art would inspire those of other cultures up to the present day. Many artists...
Viking Art
Definitionby Emma Groeneveld

Viking Art

Art made by Scandinavians during the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) mostly encompassed the decoration of functional objects made of wood, metal, stone, textile and other materials with relief carvings, engravings of animal shapes and abstract...
Ancient Korean Sculpture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Korean Sculpture

The sculpture of ancient Korea was dominated by Buddhist themes such as figurines and monumental statues of the Buddha and his followers, and large bronze bells for temples. Gilded-bronze was the most common material used by Korean sculptors...
The Printing Revolution in Renaissance Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Printing Revolution in Renaissance Europe

The arrival in Europe of the printing press with moveable metal type in the 1450s CE was an event which had enormous and long-lasting consequences. The German printer Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1398-1468 CE) is widely credited with the innovation...
Artillery in Medieval Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Artillery in Medieval Europe

Artillery weapons in medieval Europe included the mounted crossbow (ballista) and single-arm torsion catapult (mangonel), both similar to ancient Roman machines. As armies battled further afield such as in the Byzantine Empire and against...
Battle of Teutoburg Forest
Articleby Karen Schousboe

Battle of Teutoburg Forest

At the Battle of Teutoburg Forest (aka Battle of Varus), c. 9 CE, a combined force of Germans annihilated a Roman army consisting of three legions including three squadrons of cavalry and six cohorts of auxiliary troops. As some soldiers...
Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Rome
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Rome

Dogs were highly valued in ancient Rome, as they were in other cultures, and the Roman dog served many of the same purposes as it did in, say, Egypt and Persia, but with a significant difference in focus. Like the Egyptians, the Romans created...