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Trade in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Byzantine Empire

Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and expansion of the Byzantine Empire. Trade was carried out by ship over vast distances, although for safety, most sailing vessels were restricted to the better weather conditions...
Trade in the Roman World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Roman World

Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil...
Precious Materials in Antiquity
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Precious Materials in Antiquity

Certain materials have always been precious such as gold for its lustre, incorruptibility, and ease to work but some ancient cultures often gave a very high value to more unusual materials. The Romans loved Tyrian purple dye, the Incas prized...
Trade in Medieval Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in Medieval Europe

Trade and commerce in the medieval world developed to such an extent that even relatively small communities had access to weekly markets and, perhaps a day's travel away, larger but less frequent fairs, where the full range of consumer goods...
Muisca Civilization
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Muisca Civilization

The Muisca (or Chibcha) civilization flourished in ancient Colombia between 600 and 1600 CE. Their territory encompassed what is now Bogotá and its environs and they have gained lasting fame as the origin of the El Dorado legend. The...
Crafts
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Crafts

The word 'Craft' comes from the Middle English word for 'strength' or 'skill' derived from the Old English word craeft which comes from Old High German kraft, for strength, and means “skill in planning, making, executing” and...
Trade in the Phoenician World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Phoenician World

The Phoenicians, based on a narrow coastal strip of the Levant, put their excellent seafaring skills to good use and created a network of colonies and trade centres across the ancient Mediterranean. Their major trade routes were by sea to...
Roman Economy & Trade
Lesson Packby Marion Wadowski

Roman Economy & Trade

We have prepared three lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions adaptable for debates, presentations, and essays...
Mold Cape
Imageby Jennifer Brown (Jaunting Jen)

Mold Cape

The golden Mold Cape was discovered in the town of Mold in Flintshire, Wales in 1833 CE. The cape dates from 1900-1600 BCE, and is the only Bronze Age gold cape known to exist. The meaning behind the intricate patterns and designs remains...
Pax Romana - Web Quest
Worksheet/Activityby Marion Wadowski

Pax Romana - Web Quest

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching, as well as homeschooling. Students have to complete a web quest, based on multiple articles (also available...