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Asclepius
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Asclepius

Asclepius was the ancient Greek god of medicine, and he was also credited with powers of prophecy. The god had several sanctuaries across Greece; the most famous was at Epidaurus which became an important centre of healing in both ancient...
Galen
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Galen

Galen (129-216 CE) was a Greek physician, author, and philosopher, working in Rome, who influenced both medical theory and practice until the middle of the 17th century CE. Owning a large, personal library, he wrote hundreds of medical treatises...
Egyptian Medical Treatments
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Medical Treatments

The ancient Egyptians experienced the same wide array of disease that people do in the present day, but unlike most people in the modern era, they attributed the experience to supernatural causes. The common cold, for example, was prevalent...
Female Physicians in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Female Physicians in Ancient Egypt

A famous story from Greece relates how a young woman named Agnodice wished to become a doctor in Athens but found this forbidden. In fact, a woman practicing medicine in Athens in the 4th century BCE faced the death penalty. Refusing to give...
Sushruta
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sushruta

Sushruta (c. 7th or 6th century BCE) was a physician in ancient India known today as the “Father of Indian Medicine” and “Father of Plastic Surgery” for inventing and developing surgical procedures. His work on the...
Ancient Egyptian Science & Technology
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Science & Technology

The great temples and monuments of ancient Egypt continue to fascinate and amaze people in the modern day. The sheer size and scope of structures like the Great Pyramid at Giza or the Temple of Amun at Karnak or the Colossi of Memnon are...
Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia

In ancient Mesopotamia, the gods infused every aspect of daily life and this, of course, extended to health care. The goddess Gula (also known as Ninkarrak and Ninisinna) presided over health and healing aided by her consort Pabilsag (who...
Simon Forman
Definitionby Anna Simms

Simon Forman

Simon Forman (1552-1611) was an Elizabethan physician, astrologer, magician, and alchemist who lived and worked in both London and Wiltshire, England. He was unusual in that despite receiving no formal training in medicine or astrology, and...
Plagues in History
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Plagues in History

Plagues have swept through humanity ever since communities have gathered together in concentrated groups. In this collection of resources, we look at just some of the pandemics that raged throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages, from the...
Oribasius
Definitionby Helene Perdicoyianni-Paleologou

Oribasius

Oribasius (c. 320-400/403 CE) was the physician and political advisor of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate (r. 361-363 CE). A native of Pergamon, a rich and powerful Greek city in Mysia, he studied medicine and oratory and belonged to...
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