The Templo Mayor or Great Temple (called Hueteocalli by the Aztecs) dominated the central sacred precinct of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. Topped by twin temples dedicated to the war god Huitzilopochtli and the rain god Tlaloc it was a...
Antiochia ad Cragum
Antiochia ad Cragum (“Antioch on the Cliffs” or “Antioch at Cragus”) was a Hellenistic Roman city located in Cilicia Trachea (“Rough Cilicia”, also known as Cilicia Aspera and Cilicia Secunda) on the southern...
The Egyptian Amulet: Pious Symbols of Spiritual Life
Material Objects & Cultures Material objects convey volumes about the people who possessed them. Cultures and societies in every generation are in part classified - either correctly or incorrectly - by the objects or symbols they...
The Tale of Sinuhe
The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt (2000 BCE – 1700 BCE) saw the start of more formal writing which included religious scripts, administrative notes, and more in-depth fictional writing. One of the most iconic pieces of writing to...
Cosmetics in the Ancient World
The wearing of cosmetics and perfumes by both men and women goes back a very long way indeed as the ancients were just as keen as anyone to improve their appearance as quickly and as easily as possible using all manner of powders, creams...
The Aztec New Fire Ceremony
The New Fire Ceremony, also known as the Binding of the Years Ceremony, was a ritual held every 52 years in the month of November on the completion of a full cycle of the Aztec solar year (xiuhmopilli). The purpose of it was none other than...
Plowing Egyptian Farmer
circa. 1200 BCE Burial chamber of Sennedjem, Scene: Plowing farmer. "Sennedjem" plowing: (1st and 2nd column in front: "Behold"-(i+Crown), "plowing-by-Hand-(earth), in Osiris's House-Two Lands(of Egypt), col 2: "Sennedjem, ..."True of...
Red Granite Offering Table of King Senusret III
Offerings were placed upon a reed mat, reproduced in stone as the offering tables of the Dynastic periods. On this royal example, the hieroglyph hetep "offering" is written on the surface. The sign comprises a bound reed mat with a domed...
Yum Caax, a Maya god of maize. Modern relief inspired by a Maya hieroglyph. (Teplice Botanical Gardens, Czech Republic)
Doorjamb Block of Ramesses II
This limestone doorjamb block bears the name of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses II. The name of the pharaoh is written inside cartouche, the royal name-ring, with the sun-disc above, and the hieroglyph for "gold," the symbol of eternity, below...