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Oracle Bones
Definitionby Emily Mark

Oracle Bones

Oracle Bones (also known as Dragon's Bones) were the shoulder blades of oxen or plastrons of turtles (the flat, underside of the turtle's shell) which were used in the Shang Dynasty of China (c. 1600-1046 BCE) for divination. The symbols...
Linear B Script
Definitionby Cristian Violatti

Linear B Script

Linear B Script was the writing system used by the Mycenaean civilization. Examples of this script have been recovered from late Minoan II contexts in Crete and Mycenaean IIIA-B contexts in mainland Greece, which suggest that the script was...
Mesopotamia
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers') was an ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau, corresponding to modern-day...
Immortality of Writers in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Immortality of Writers in Ancient Egypt

For the ancient Egyptians, life on earth was only one part of an eternal journey which continued after death. One's purpose in life was to live in balance with one's self, family, community, and the gods. Any occupation in Egypt was considered...
Mesopotamian Science and Technology
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Science and Technology

Mesopotamian science and technology developed during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) and Early Dynastic Period (2900-1750 BCE) of the Sumerian culture of southern Mesopotamia. The foundation of future Mesopotamian advances in scientific/technological...
Egyptian Papyrus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Papyrus

Papyrus is a plant (cyperus papyrus) which once grew in abundance, primarily in the wilds of the Egyptian Delta but also elsewhere in the Nile River Valley, but is now quite rare. Papyrus buds opened from a horizontal root growing in shallow...
Sumerian Language
Definitionby Jason Moser

Sumerian Language

The Sumerian language was spoken in southern Mesopotamia before the 2nd millennium BCE and was the first language to be written in the cuneiform script. It is an isolate language meaning we know of no other languages that relate to it ancestrally...
Linear A Script
Definitionby Cristian Violatti

Linear A Script

The Linear A script was the writing system used by the Minoan civilization. Examples of this script have been recovered from Cretan sites such as Hagia Triada, Knossos, and Phaistos. Additional examples of the Linear A script have also been...
Kharosthi Script
Definitionby Cristian Violatti

Kharosthi Script

The Kharosthi script (also known as 'Indo-Bactrian' script) was a writing system originally developed in present-day northern Pakistan, sometime between the 4th and 3rd century BCE. Kharosthi was employed to represent a form of Prakrit (Middle...
Illuminated Manuscripts
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Illuminated Manuscripts

Illuminated manuscripts were hand-made books, usually on Christian scripture or practice, produced in Western Europe between c. 500-c. 1600 CE. They are so called because of the use of gold and silver which illuminates the text and accompanying...