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Tower of London
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Tower of London

The Tower of London is a castle located in London alongside the River Thames which was first built by William the Conqueror from c. 1077 and significantly added to over the centuries. Often referred to in England as simply 'the Tower', it...
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628-1691 CE) was the largest English settlement in New England and the most influential both in the colonization of the region and later developments in what would become the United States of America. It was founded...
Middle and Southern English Colonies
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Middle and Southern English Colonies

The establishment of the Middle and Southern English Colonies of North America was encouraged by the earlier English settlements of Jamestown Colony of Virginia in the south (founded 1607) and Plymouth Colony and, especially, Massachusetts...
Spanish Armada
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Spanish Armada

The 1588 Spanish Armada was a fleet of 132 ships assembled by King Philip II of Spain (r. 1556-1598) to invade England, his 'Enterprise of England'. The Royal Navy of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603) met the Armada in the English Channel...
The Hundred Years' War: Consequences & Effects
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Hundred Years' War: Consequences & Effects

The Hundred Years' War was fought intermittently between England and France from 1337 to 1453 CE and the conflict had many consequences, both immediate and long-lasting. Besides the obvious death and destruction that many of the battles visited...
Catherine of Aragon
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536 CE) was a Spanish princess who famously became the Queen of England and the first wife of Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE). When the marriage did not produce a male heir, Henry VIII became desperate to...
The Plantagenets
Collection by Mark Cartwright

The Plantagenets

The Plantagenets, sometimes referred to as the Angevin-Plantagenets, were the ruling dynasty of England from 1154 to 1485 CE. The name Angevin derives from the family's ancestral lands in Anjou, France and the term Plantagenet (perhaps) from...
William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North
Article by Mark Cartwright

William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North

By the end of 1066 CE William the Conqueror had won a decisive victory at the Battle of Hastings, subdued the south-east of England and been crowned King William I in Westminster Abbey but there remained rebellion in the air throughout 1067...
Diversity in Church Architecture in Medieval England
Article by Nick Miller

Diversity in Church Architecture in Medieval England

Medieval English churches differed in size and layout. Their original and evolving role(s), financial and material resources, and architectural fashions helped determine variability. However, their look ultimately grew from a constant symbiosis...
David I of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

David I of Scotland

David I of Scotland reigned from 1124 to 1153 CE. Taking over from his elder brother Alexander I of Scotland (r. 1107-1124 CE), David continued to consolidate the kingdom of Scotland as a single nation, built castles and monasteries, and...
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